It is reasonable to request a change, citing the issues you brought up. It is also reasonable for management to refuse as seating is a highly political thing and there are many things beyond your personal comfort that go into how they determine who sits where.
The fact that your managers did not solicit input from the employees tells me they are less concerned about employee comfort and more concerned about political power. And I imagine they had many long, very heated discussions about who would go where. That your team got what seems to be one of the worst places indicates how little political power your boss has. That you got the worst spot on the team indicates how junior you are and how little political power you have.
For instance, in most offices you have certain cubicles or offices in high value spots such as near a window or that are larger with desks facing out. The chances of getting one of those cubicles (even if they are empty) if you are junior is effectively 0 in well over 90% of all companies with assigned seats because you are not entitled to the nicer cube based on your particular level in the organization.
The more junior you are, the worse your seating will be no matter what your profession. Seating in your company is by perceived seniority and team, moving out of that pattern is an act of rebellion. Seating is serious stuff in any bureaucratic organization and failure to toe the line automatically ensures that all managers above your boss (who often have a say in your performance evaluations whether you realize it or not) have marked you as a troublemaker in their heads. This is not a good thing. That your boss didn't immediately make you move back also marks him out as an ineffective manager and is not good for his career either.
Where the trouble comes in this sort of thing is that there are not good cubicles available for all employees. If others who are senior to you notice you have a better cube than they do, there may be an all out war as people try to get a better spot at everyone's expense. Probably a huge portion of the employees are not happy with their seating at this point (Who would be with low cubicles?), you are not a special snowflake who deserves better than anyone else. If people perceive you have received special treatment, they will be angry with you. You may find it harder to get cooperation, you may find that people say nasty things about you behind your back, you may find that, in general, your workplace reputation is shot.
At this point your best move is to go back to the original spot. If you can make a case for why this spot is bad for you based on medical evidence (frankly nobody wants to sit there, so you have no case unless you have a medical reason why you can't), you might (and I stress might) be able to get a better assignment. But after your act of rebellion, your chances of are severely reduced.
You have to understand that a company that would use low partitions does not care about worker productivity, they care more about the cost of seating (which is admittedly quite high). So your productivity argument does not resonate with them. You are expecting managers to be logical, but they are political. Always assume that your boss is not going to do the logical thing unless it also coincides with the politically smart thing to do. Further you are being illogical yourself because you are only looking at the issue from your personal perspective and not from the perspective of people who have to balance the needs of hundreds and possibly thousands of employees (many of whom are far more valuable to the organization than you are).
The best way to get better seating in an organization like the one you are in is to get more seniority and become so valuable as an employee that they don't want to lose you. This also involves playing the office politics game so that the senior managers who make these decisions know who you are and how valuable you are.
Also you personally need to learn to work with distractions around you. Most offices have continual distractions. You need to stop expecting a quiet private place to work and start to deal with reality. Cubicles are not the optimal work place for anyone, yet somehow most of us adjust to them and learn to do our work.