It seems like in writing the question you've figured the things that you've been doing weren't working. So, if you haven't already, stop doing them. It doesn't matter if you were technically right or whether what you were doing may have worked in a different environment: it wasn't productive, so stop.
Re your questions, in my opinion, regardless of the rights and wrongs of the situation, you need to keep quiet for a while, listen to your colleagues and your manager, and establish yourself as someone who can successfully work on what they're asked to and who can form productive working relationships with other team members. If there is a lot of work on, it is likely expected that team members will take the load and not rock the boat.
How do I raise legitimate concerns and give critiques? (and have them be considered, accepted and/or ultimately addressed)
Establish yourself first. You clearly can't get your technical ideas across to your colleagues and influence the team as a whole, but use them as much as you can within your day to day work. Demonstrating that you get your work done faster and more reliably than your colleagues will put you in a good position in the future to get your ideas across.
I had a similar experience recently where I couldn't convince my manager to adopt my ideas, but used them myself and at the end of the project the manager did notice that the project had gone well, and commented on it (without me asking). If your manager or your colleagues don't notice your good work, and aren't then receptive to discussing it, you don't have a hope of getting your ideas considered nevermind addressed.
Perhaps I have already ruined the chance to have a cordial work relationship with some developers. How do I change/fix that? (how others perceive me, listen to me again)
I doubt that. Most people just want colleagues who can do their job and who they can get along with. If it turns out that you're both of those things in your colleagues' view, I don't see there's a problem. The key thing is whether you can stop talking and start listening. Once again I make no judgement about the technical rights and wrongs of the situation. If you're right about your technical ideas, you may well flourish in other companies.
Looking to the future, in my opinion one key question is how much you're learning. Let's say you establish yourself, stop talking and start listening more. How much do you then learn from your more experienced colleagues, technically, and in terms of things like how projects are managed, how business is done, etc? Are you then able to engage in productive, back-and-forth discussions with colleagues around the work you're doing, and, eventually around the work of the team as whole, discussions where you all learn something?
Something that struck me as significant in your post was when you said your ideas were countered with "Don't trust the internet" and "experience". It seems like you have a lot of interests and ideas, and want to be in a high-achieving team. If after adjusting your talk-listen balance you aren't in an environment which values honest and open discussion of ideas above years-in-post, then it might not be the right place for you. Of course in the meantime it makes sense to get on with the work at hand and with your colleagues.
(I have deliberately tried not to make this answer software-specific, in view of the comment by Pheonixblade9 under the question.)