The family and friends discount loophole is a systematic problem inside the company. You could report the problem and (perhaps) get the guy fired, but that probably wouldn't change much in terms of outcome overall.
Instead, if I were you, I'd submit an anonymous report of the issue, but I wouldn't name the person taking advantage of the policy, nor would I tell them where those items were being sold. Because if the company really wanted to find out who was taking advantage of this policy, or where those items were being sold (probably Ebay), they could probably figure it out by themselves with a little bit of investigative work.
But I suspect that whoever decides to take on this particular issue (assuming someone even wants to touch it) will be politically savvy enough to try to change the system itself instead of going after the individuals taking advantage of the system. Also, I would choose very carefully who to give my report to. For instance, if the company was public, I would inform the shareholders of the company. But if the company wasn't public, I'd have to settle by giving my anonymous report to a couple of executives (who may act on the information, or who may completely ignore it).
On a side-note, if you're an employee at an Apple store, your employee discount is small (I forget the exact percentage), and you're only allowed to use it for one computer and one iPhone per year. That's it! No more than one of each. If a family member wants one, that means you'll have to forego buying one for yourself that year.
The constructions projects without permits. I would use a similar approach. I'd submit my report anonymously. I wouldn't name a particular culprit. And I would submit the report, where I think it would have the most immediate impact, in this case to the planning commission itself.
And I would do this in a heartbeat if I knew that this lack of permits might cause a safety issue, or a health-related issue. Or simply, if I had my name attached to the project and I was the one being pressured to do the thing illegally in the first place (in which case, I'd make the report using my name to ultimately protect myself, but I'd ask the planning commission to keep me as an anonymous source).
That being said, if I wasn't in charge of the project itself, and if I found the requirements of the zoning commission unreasonable, I probably wouldn't intervene.
And in no way, would I put a target on my back by reporting either of these issues officially to the company itself, or by reporting these issues without the cover of anonymity. They should know about these types of problems already. And the fact that they aren't aware, or haven't resolved those problems, could imply a degree of apathy or complicity on their part.