Personally, I still think the question is a little too much of a rant even after the rewrite and should be changed to something that focuses more on "What is office politics?". Unless this is made clear, any answer would probably be moot.
If your definition of politics is akin to the backstabbing and dramatic power plays so common on television, and you genuinely believe that the person has employed such means to "leapfrog" over you, I think that anything you do, or plan to do, will be tinted with negative connotations and not necessarily realistic expectations.
If your definition of politics is to something more in line with "influencing people through soft skills to accept your ideas", I'm sure your plans would be different as well.
In any case, its my experience as a long time manager and head of department that the ability to influence people is my number one job description.
Does this require the use of non traditional soft skills? Definitely.
Would I be doing my job to the best of my ability without these soft skills? Definitely.
At the end of the day, your understanding of the event will drive your perception of whether or not something was "right" or "just". What I would suggest is to review those perceptions and try to come at the question at different angles before coming to a conclusion and that this review should be done before you even start thinking about what you plan or want to do about it.