Can a situation, that happened at work, be used against you in your work performance review, if you were never approached or talked to about it?
I think the short answer to this is "yes". However in that situation I think it's a legitimate response to challenge it by saying "if this was an issue, why was it never brought to my attention at the time?"
Leaving an issue undisclosed and then raising it X time later seems a bit disingenuous to me and I would certainly have something to say if I was given a negative review based on events that happened but were not flagged at the time.
In principle, yes. If there were accusations, it would be unfair to bring them up months later when you don't know anymore how to defend yourself. If there was something repeating, it would be unfair if you were never told to change your behaviour.
But if there was some event that definitely happened, and that was your fault without a doubt, that you knew about, and that couldn't be fixed by something you do, then there is no reason that it couldn't be brought up in your performance review for the first time.