This is actually a great opportunity in disguise. Most engineers don't appreciate how huge this is for a current employer or prospective employer. On par with technical skills is your ability to collaborate with people, accept responsibility for mistakes, work with others through their own, and tactfully advocate your thoughts. The common consensus is that this is best demonstrated when interviewing by sharing an anecdotal story. usually people cobble together such stories in retrospect, but you could be very strategic and realize you have the opportunity to write a great story right here that would answer questions such as "how do you handle conflict" and probably open surprising opportunities at your current employer.
Something to consider then are your tactics vs strategy.
Your tactics are the systems and actions you choose to help with your problem. So, for instance, choosing better wording that's less personal, choosing the right time, being mindful of audience/by-standers, helping the person you're addressing save-face, or using automated tests to catch the error. Spend time learning and practicing good tactics. This will be your toolbox you can leverage towards your strategy.
The problem you're facing is symptomatic of an even bigger problem: this person doesn't really like you. That's what you strategically want to fix.
In the workplace, especially on a team, it is beyond your control that you have a personal relationship with every single one of your teammates. Maybe someone doesn't like you and you don't like them, too bad, you are forced into relationship by being on a team. It's your choice whether those relationships are good or bad. You can choose to put effort into other people or not. Real professional growth comes when you go beyond thinking of yourself as just a code cruncher (which leads to code arrogance problems), but as a functioning member of a team, and you want to show that, with you on a team, that team is greater than the sum of it's parts. That means great relational awareness.
The strategic decision is to ask yourself what do you want that relationship to look like? Is it possible? What is missing or what challenges might hinder the relationship? What do you need to do to make that happen? For instance, many relationship problems come down to trust. So a strategy would be to show this developer that you are thinking about his/her interests and not just your own, and to bring your relationship to the point where this person trusts you. Don't be a stoic know-it-all, that doesn't get people on your side even if you are right and justified. The strategy is to realize you want people on your side, and to think through how that happens. What works and what doesn't. It's also important to realize that a successful strategy often requires patience. You may need to work and challenge yourself more than you like to make real progress.
The cool thing about this is that, if you develop a really solid relationship with this senior developer, then the tactics that got you there become much less necessary and it's easier to be more efficient and more successful in your job. A good strategy can get you to a good relationship, and with a good relationship you'll find it much easier to achieve your objectives. So think about working on your relationship with this person when there isn't a problem, and that will make it easier when issues like this come up.