Your question was,
Is there a way I can ask for, and actually get, their desired range or target salary before they make an offer?
Really, this is two questions: how can you ask? And, Will you get THE answer?
It is reasonable to ask for the salary range they have budgeted for the position, as part of the hiring process, before an offer is formally extended. However, it is not likely that you will receive the exact number they are planning to offer you - mostly because they may not have a specific, exact number in mind yet.
In terms of how - it's common in interviews for the interviewer to give the candidate a chance to ask questions. At that point, you can mention,
I am curious about the salary range that was budgeted for this position, in order to understand if we will be a good fit for each other in terms of compensation. Also, I'm interested to hear an overview of other benefits - bonuses, time off, healthcare, etc.
If you'd like to determine this before the interview, it's very reasonable to ask the recruiter during any pre-screening that takes place. I wouldn't phrase it as "I don't want to waste my time flying in for an interview" since that might come off as a little egotistical (although it's a perfectly legitimate reason). Phrasing it as a matter of overall fit is appropriate.
It's worth noting that coming to a general understanding that salary is in the right ballpark is arguably an important part of the prescreening process, so it's totally reasonable to ask. This is also the reason why the employer is asking you what your number is, at that point in the process.
If you're curious about overall negotiation tactics, there are lots of good questions on that topic. Searching on the job-offer and negotiation tags will get you a lot of reading material.