As a hiring manager in the technology field, for me the answer to when does your college "matter less" is "when your work can speak for itself". Truth be told, your college never matters to me, unless your degree is from a not-accredited or for-profit institution. But that's just me and my own prejudice.
It is absolutely true that many people in many different industries (including my own) will sort applicants for internships and entry-level and junior positions purely by school and GPA. I understand the motivation to do so -- think "thousands of applicants for coveted accounting and finance internships at the Big Four companies" -- but that's not how I run my job searches nor is it how everyone runs theirs.
Looking at your situation, you say you've been employed since college and you've done well. If that's the case, as a hiring manager, I honestly wouldn't care if you went to Hamilton College (I just picked a random small college in New England) or the flagship university of your new state. What would stand out (and matter) to me is that you've already had a job and did well in it.
If you didn't have that experience, and all you had was your degree and experience at your institution, and people looking at you weren't familiar with your institution, then at worse it wouldn't help you (which is what "name" institutions do) but it is unlikely to actively hurt you. But it should stop being a factor for the most part once you have experience, which you do.
It's also something entirely out of your control, and my advice would be not to dwell on it at all. If someone actually asks you about your college experiences, talk about the quality of the projects and the work that you did, and leave it at that. People will judge it however they're going to judge it, and not according to some industry standard that allows us to give you a single correct answer.