Based on your question, I think you've been omitting key parts of this story.
You mention having been fired, but not the reason for being fired. However, you seem to be very averse to future employers contacting your former employer, which leads me to believe that there is a conflict that led to your termination that you're not talking about.
Without the full picture, we can't really help you. I added the below feedback in response to specific things that you mention; because I honestly get the feeling that her story is going to be vastly different from yours; and that you and her being on different wavelengths is likely a large contributor to the friction you encountered.
You mention that the supervisor was overly personal and that you wanted to keep it professional, but then you complain that she didn't friend you on Facebook.
Based on this (and several other things you mention), I get the feeling that you have very mixed expectations about how to go about workplace interactions. It's hard to pin down what exactly you expect out of your working environment.
How to ask for feedback on job performance from former employer?
She often said that I ask too many questions.
She already gave you some feedback.
She often said that I ask too many questions. Most of my questions were based on the job, on how to complete a task, or whether I am doing something the right way.
Just because the questions were on topic doesn't mean that you didn't ask too many of them. It's good to ask questions when in doubt, but there is a line of reasonability here.
As a clear example, imagine if you always clarified people by confirming their last name.
Can you give this paper to Jenny?
Do you mean Jenny Smith?
The question is appropriate if you're talking about one client out of thousands or you work with more than one Jenny, but quickly becomes cumbersome if Jenny is a direct colleague of yours and/or the context already made it abundantly clear that this was in reference to a specific Jenny.
She refused to tell me who complained about me.
That is appropriate behavior. If she mentions who said it, before even talking to you, she basically pits you and the person against each other.
Do you want to be able to talk to your supervisor in confidence if you feel the need to? Then allow your colleagues to do the same. That includes having the supervisor not disclose their source, in order to protect the confidence in which that conversation took place.
Sometimes she would instant message me from home and then tell me about her family problems.
This sounds like a personal conversation. It can be inappropriate based on the topic of conversation; but having a private conversation in and of itself is allowed.
Since you don't mention what it was about, I'm going to assume it was nothing wildly inappropriate.
The supervisor friended many of my coworkers and classmates on Facebook but refused my request for friend on Facebook.
Just because you make a friend at work doesn't mean that everyone at work should now be your friend.
Also, why mention classmates? She presumably friended some people, some of whom also happened to be your classmates. There is no reason to think that this in any way revolves around you.
treated me different from my coworkers
Other than the not friending on Facebook, how so?
I often felt confused about how to do my job and how to keep professional.
Staying professional is commendable. But outright refusing to make a personal connection can of course be an issue in and of itself.
This is just a guess, but your "strictly professional" approach may have been the cause for not being friended on Facebook. (whether this guess is correct or not does not in any way change what I said before, she's free to friend who she wants).
Now, I have been let go from that job and she has not given me any formal termination letter or feedback meeting.
Was this an official job, or a volunteer position? Because official terminations need to be put on paper, as far as I'm aware.
Feedback meetings, however, are not required. You're free to ask for one, but there's no implicit expectation for her to offer it before you ask.
Just ask her for feedback. This doesn't even need to be a meeting; but feel free to ask for one if you feel it needs to be done in scope of a meeting.
Your question strongly implies that you're looking for a feedback meeting in an official capacity, but I'm not sure why you keep it this official. I assume this is a matter of personal growth. You can ask her (or any of your coworkers) personally for feedback, if you're open to criticism and are willing to accept the feedback without arguing.
If you're expecting a debate instead of feedback, don't even ask for the meeting. That is not the point of asking for feedback.
How do I state my experience with outdoor program on my resume and job applications, without using my former employer contact information?
Depends on the culture. Where I'm from, references are not a requirement on a resume. However, based on your phrasing, I assume they are expected where you're from.
Omitting the contact information defeats the purpose of providing a reference.
Why are you intending to omit it? Are you expecting your former employer to completely tear you down when asked for a reference? From what I gather, she was a relatively kind person, and you didn't mention anything that suggests that she's bearing a grudge towards you.
Even if you didn't get along with her (or she with you), that doesn't mean she will go out of her way to ruin your future careeer.
How do I discuss my experience with my future employers?
I'm not sure what you're asking here. You simply talk about your experience.
Are you asking how to skirt the topic of being fired? Don't. Lying during an interview will negatively affect your employment prospects more than owning up to past mistakes.
While you should avoid lying, there is merit to picking the right language.
- Don't focus on what your former employer did wrong.
- Don't bring up specific issues. It implies that you hold a grudge.
- Don't talk badly about anyone from your former job. It suggests that you're going to do the same about your future employer once you leave their company.
There are better ways of addressing this:
- Mention that you were on different wavelengths, without suggesting who was right and who wasn't.
- "The job sucked" and "The job didn't quite fit me" are expressing a very similar thing in a very different way. Pick the second option.
- Focus on what you've learned from past experiences, rather than focusing on making declarative statements about past experiences. For example, say "I learned to become more self-reliant" as opposed to "They said I asked too many questions".