"do I deserve" means that the decision is somewhere in the justice/injustice scale. It is not.
In the corporate setup, there is no justice. There are decisions based upon perception. The whole story seems to be that during your probation period, they had a perception of you being a bad fit. Wether it's deserved or not does not matter. What does matter is that they did fear you would be a bad cultural fit.
Which leads to Mawg's excellent answer : was this company a bad fit for you? Probably, as you seem to be a free speaker, and this company seems to value more deferent behaviours. That's the important thing. Usually a free speaker can't keep his tongue for a very long time, and you would not have fit there anyways. Better leave early.
Is it fair? Probably no. Is it deserved? Probably no. Is it a good thing for your career? In the grand scheme of things, that's likely. I'd even say that your health is the first winner there - working in such an authoritarian setup when you don't fit the authoritarian requirements is excessively draining and stressful. Better leave the place to someone used to keep his mouth shut. You both will be happier.