have been working with a recruiter internal to the company I am
Then it may already be too late. If not, there are various ways to get feedback on your CV:
ask co-workers - although you may find that slightly invasive or embarrassing, and it might indicate that you are considering moving
Submit it to an external recruiter; tell them that you are looking for a job, and would appreciate feedback on your CV ; they ought tot have seen enough to be able to help
- Pay one of those companies who keep spamming me who offer to review & rewrite your CV
That advise goes for everyone. In your case, if you are senior, then your CV is probably in good shape, since you landed jobs to get you this far, and you can Google for general advice. So unless your layout is a total disaster, I would expect experience to speak for itself. And, although your experience will be discussed at interview, your CV is only a means of landing the interview. Once you have done that, its layout, writing style, format, etc are of no import.
To (finally) answer your actual question. I do not think that you can ask for feedback, from a company to which you are applying, before interview. And afterwards, what’s their motivation for doing so? You might get a quick email in response, so it can’t hurt. You could try asking HR in the final interview, when they ask if you have any questions. My advice is, for senior, don’t sweat the CV too much.