The goal of a resume is to sell yourself to the employer. Unfortunately, not all employers evaluate resumes in the same way. Sometimes, creating a visual resume is incredibly successful. Christopher Spurlock gained a whole bunch of visibility when he created this awesome infographic resume spawning a million sites that replicate it automatically, and got him a job at the Huffington Post.
After reading the other answer by kolossus I also wanted to add a bit on making sure the images are appropriate for the resume.
Avoid Images Nobody Knows
If you see Microsoft's logo, you will recognize it. If you see the below logo, it will just take up space.
This is the logo for Kobe, Japan. It is a fancy logo (looks kind of like the Chanel logo), but it is probably recognized by nobody on this site, and probably won't be of much value if I'm applying for jobs in London, for instance.
Be Aware of Potential Copyright Issues
While this is not likely to be a serious issue, many companies do not allow the use of their logo on promotional documents without their express written consent to prevent the impression that the company is endorsing the entity using their logo.
A hiring manager may think, "Would I want previous employees from this company, who may have been fired or incompetent, to use our logo on their resume?" and look down on you for that. Probably not, but something to consider.
Make Sure the Image Has Value
"Looking Cool" may seem like a great idea to add some pizzazz to your resume, but if they aren't adding information, then you are taking away space that could sell you better. The link to Chris Spurlock's resume is visually interesting, but more importantly has great information (shows his experience and education on a timeline) that adds value.
Assuming you are using appropriate value-adding images, then I suggest making your decision as follows...
If you want to work for a company that likes that sort of thing, then put it in by all means. If you are ambivalent about how traditional a company is about their resume filtering practices, then be sure to make it match the job you are applying for. Think about how the person reading your resume will react to it, and adjust accordingly.
The following are some generalizations about which types of industries fall in to which camps.
Is it a 'traditional' business?
If you are applying to a more 'conservative' industry (law, finance, banking, oil & gas, manufacturing) they may not appreciate it as much as a 'creative' industry like an ad agency, new media, software firm, etc.
Is it a big company or a small company?
If you are applying to a big company, the person reading (and evaluating) your resume is less likely to want to take a risk with a "different" resume than a start-up company. Larger companies have more layers of management, and whoever reads your resume in HR would know that they will have to present your resume to their boss, and to their boss' boss, and it means more people may ask, "Why are you even considering someone with an image on their resume?"
Smaller companies have less levels of management, and are more likely to look favorably on someone who stands out.
What is the position?
If you are applying for an entry-level position with lots of competition, your resume will help set you apart from others (either in a good or bad way) and your decision will have a bigger impact. If you are applying for a much more important position, then chances are the content of your resume will be much more important than catching their eye (since there will be fewer resumes to filter through).