To me a Design Pattern is something like Singleton or Strategy and that's way too small to go on a resume. MVC and MVVM are closer to frameworks, and you should definitely list them. Most resumes I see have a Technologies section that is just a list of languages, frameworks, tools and the like, something like:
C#, ASP.NET MVC, SQL, Windows Forms, WPF, XAML, MVVM, Visual Studio, Git, TFS, Scrum, Python, Ruby
I do pay attention to that list - if I want to hire a Windows 8 C++ developer then a C# dev who knows XAML and MVVM is still eligible for consideration, but a C# developer who's been doing exclusively web things will need to show me a reason I should believe they can do client development.
Don't get worked up about whether something is a language or not, is a framework or not, since half the people reading your resume are screening for buzzwords and don't know what any of them mean. The 6 extra characters it takes to add
, MVVM to your resume could be the difference for getting the interview.