This is a hard question to answer either yes or no, without knowing many more details about the situation. Personally I always prefer telling people the truth, but there are more than one way to do that.
For one, you could simply say that you had a hard time working together with your boss. This way your colleagues will know that there are personal reasons for quitting, while you do not blame your boss specifically for the problems.
If the way your boss treated you was so bad, that you are actually worried about repreccusions towards yourself or coworkers in the future, this is what I would do:
Write a list of incidents that has happened. Be as specific as possible, and as neutral as possible in how you write it. Quote exact sentences spoken, as well as you can remember, and write down specific dates and times as precisely as you can.
If you do this, you will have a great resource in two cases. The first is if the treatment was so bad, you consider it illegal. It is often hard to take on a case against an employer while the abuse happens. If you write it down, leave, and get everything at some distance, you can clear your head, and decide later if this is something you'd want to pursue legally. If it is not illegal behaviour, but still unacceptable, your notes might be useful in the future, if anyone else steps forward with accusations against your former boss. Now you have your story well documented, if you want to back up another person.
The second reason, while less likely, is if your former boss keeps making life hard for you in any way, after your working relationship is over. Confrontation might not be optional anymore, and details about specific events that has occurred in the past, will be useful.
Your notes will not act as proof of anything more than your word, but human memory is not perfect, and a document like this will be valuable. It will give you the opportunity to avoid any conflict right now, and get things calmed down before making any decision.
I did this myself after starting out at a kiosk back in my early 20's. I only worked there for four days, and refused to sign a contract after my test employment period, because of the fear-based leadership style my boss had. (He even called himself an asshole). My boss then went on to say that he would not pay me for my hours up until then, which is illegal in my country, but he claimed he knew more about it than me. It was very hard to stand up for myself like that, and I was not ready to fight for my money at the time. So I wrote things down, and did it later. And it worked.
No one knows if you should tell your coworkers now. There is not enough information available, and details do matter in this case. But please remember that there are more options than simply yes or no in this case. Any answer claiming that it is simply yes or no, is a bad answer, and I have no understanding why one of them have over 70 upvotes at the time of writing this.