YES, but you have to be prepared for the consequences. :(
Wow, this is a pretty crazy thing to do and I have never seen such onerous restrictions. While most companies require using the company PC, it's at least decent. Restricting personal peripherals is something I don't think I've even heard of, even in very security conscious environments.
Anyway, you can explain, in detail, why specific personal peripherals improve productivity and why, consequently, removing them will hurt productivity.
Developers love their Macro Keyboards. Even just 2/3 good macros on one keypress saves minutes to hours over time. Devs also love their keyboards and become accustomed to one of 10+ specific click types. Certain mice help with repetitive stress. All sorts of reasons.
You can collectively come up with reasons withing your group.
Now, to prepare for the consequences...
Worse case, Boss does not relent but you are expected to maintain productivity. This puts everyone in a difficult position because with such a peculiar restriction, I doubt you'd get Boss to understand the restrictions are a significant contributing factor.
You can offer to do a trial of using personal devices again, but have a backup plan if that doesn't work, up to seeking new employ.
From the comments: If security is the concern, you can propose the company source the peripherals themselves and you share the cost. This way, you get the peripheral you need and they are responsible for securing it. And you get to keep you personal device at home.