From what's written, I don't think you should.
I think I know where you're coming from. It feels like it would be great to tell your boss. But, based on my experience, it won't work out that way. Here are my reasons why, as they relate to this specific situation:
1. Your boss may not know enough detail to respond meaningfully at all
If your boss is not knowledgeable or skilled enough to grasp the problem in sufficient detail, he's not going to know what to make of the problem itself. All he knows about is the outcome, which was bad. Since you're the expert he assigned to oversee this area of the business, all he knows is that that bad thing happened on your watch.
2. You took responsibility
I don't know exactly how you approached or phrased it, but if you took responsibility for the problem then you're declaring that the problem was in some substantial way your fault. This is especially problematic if your boss can't assess the issue without access to your expertise, since you are then tasked with bearing the blame and also trying to express that the problem was unpredictable and not preventable.
Additionally, those two (unforeseeable but your fault) are hard to blend. It's not surprising (though still not necessarily acceptable) that your boss is focusing on the part that he can more easily evaluate (that it was your responsibility, and something bad happened).
I don't know what the specific issue was, but if your comments about the problem being impossible to predict or prevent are accurate, I'm not sure why you would take responsibility for it. This may be confusing your boss as well. If it truly were your fault, your boss wouldn't be wrong to blame you.
3. Your boss is accountable to his own bosses
Your boss is still responsible to his superiors for this issue and its consequences, and if he can't speak to the technical end then pointing to personnel is all he has available. Whether or not you feel that $4000 is a lot or an inconsequential amount, your boss' bosses' opinions on the matter will be vastly more important to him.
Your assertion that the loss is too little to care about arrogates you to your boss' role, discounts any possibility that he might need something you yourself do not, and is itself somewhat rude and unprofessional. This does not justify your boss' tirade, but neither does it make a riposte from you more appropriate.
4. It's not clear that this incident reveals your boss' true feelings
This sounds like a stressful situation, and one about which your boss has some fundamental lack of knowledge and ability to appreciate fully. That he spoke to you in a derogatory and unprofessional way isn't necessarily acceptable, but it's not clear to me that it should outweigh the five months' worth of perfectly acceptable interactions you've had with him.
That five months' experience is evidence that the worst interpretation you can think of may not be true. It seems like you're just letting this single experience overshadow everything else you've observed because it was unpleasant for you. That would be an error.
5. What are you even hoping to achieve in telling your boss he was rude to you?
If your entire goal is something abstract, like to "stand up for yourself", you might want to abandon the whole idea. After all, it doesn't sound like you've actually suffered any consequences (aside from that one unpleasant interaction). If things go well, you'll still have to work with this person and deal with any fallout from confronting him. And you may find that having "stood up for yourself" is worth less than you imagined.
If your goal is something more specific, like to prevent your boss from speaking to you this way in the future, you'll have to reflect on whether or not telling your boss he was rude to you is a useful part of that effort. He probably knows that those comments were not polite or delicate, but either felt they were appropriate or simply allowed his anger to erupt. Whatever the case, telling him something he already knows will probably not be helpful.
I think that a more useful goal would be to reflect on how you might have presented the situation to your boss in a way that was more comprehensible to him, and a more accurate representation of the situation. If the problem was unpreventable, taking full responsibility is tricky, and it might be better to discuss countermeasures to prevent or mitigate future unpredictable, unpreventable problems.
tl;dr: I think that you're viewing this through the lens of your subjective response to your boss, and not with a more objective eye that considers the broader situation. Even if it would be emotionally satisfying for you to tell your boss off (which I do not concede), virtually every other consequence I foresee is bad for you and your career. I just don't see much upside potential for you here, so dropping the issue and moving on seems appropriate and desirable.