I can hear your frustrating with these management decisions, but I hope you can avoid letting those feeling interfere with your ability to do what's best for the organization.
Wait until Bob fails and than [sic] show my boss that I already knew this was coming
Firstly: Do what's best for the organization, not for yourself. If you don't want to be there anymore, then leave. But if you're going to stay then your most important job is to support your immediate supervisor. She choose Bob for this role and if it's your job to training him, support your boss by training Bob as best you can.
Bob was promoted; it's not his fault you were passed over. So under no circumstances should you treat him like an enemy. The idea that you should wait until Bob fails and then your boss will recognize that you were right all along is unlikely to work out for several reasons. As a Floor Manager, Bob represents your reputation to others in the organization, and his opinion of you is likely to have a strong influence on how others come to view you and your abilities. So if you're hoping he fails and you start acting in ways so that he fails, there is going to be blowback. That kind of attitude will only make you look like an uncooperative, insubordinate, self-serving troublemaker. This course of action would be unfair to Bob and it would be the wrong thing to do to the organization. Even if it works and you get promoted for bad behavior, you have a moral obligation to not act this way.
Since you feel you should have been promoted instead, it should be interesting and worthwhile to find out why you weren't. Did you ask your boss why she didn't make you the floor manager? Could you be unaware of some behaviors and communication style issues which are holding you back? Or maybe Bob just has more experience and a positive track record as a manager? Wouldn't it be helpful to know these things? Book some time with your boss and tell her that you'd like to better understand the decision and it would very helpful to you if she could explain what attributes she's looking for in a floor manager, how you measure up, and what you could do to improve.
I'm responsible to train Bob...he doesn't listen to my advice (which made him make a few mistakes) and he doesn't consult me about things we should agree upon together
Don't blame Bob. Blame yourself. I know this sounds extreme, but if it's your job to train Bob, then you need to take ownership of his training. So instead of blaming him for "not listening", blame yourself for not being heard. If someone isn’t doing what you want or need them to do, look in the mirror first and determine what you can do to better enable this.
This is a new role for Bob so--of course--he has a learning curve. You need to do a better job helping him get over it. If he makes a mistake don't blame him, instead ask yourself: am I articulate and compelling enough in how I'm training him? What context have I failed to communicate?
Could I do a better job linking work to company/functional goals?
Could I make the relative priority of things more clear?
- how important/how time-sensitive
- what's critical and needs to happen now
- what's nice to have (when you can get to it)
Am I communicating the appropriate level of refinement?
- No errors (credit cards handling, etc...), or...
- Pretty good/can correct errors (website copy), or...
- Rough (experimental)
Have I identified key stakeholders? Can I define key metrics and define success?
Do an amazing job helping Bob onboard into his new role and he's likely to do what we can to help you. Hopefully, your actions will be praised and you'll be rewarded. But even if you aren't, at least you did the right thing instead of trying to get ahead by sabotage and ethically dubious behavior.