As a professional in a highly skills-driven technical field like software development, it's very easy to (perhaps unconsciously) focus your entire career path, and any job searching you do, on learning "the newest" tech or skill. When you can't get a desirable job, or you feel stagnant, it's easy to assume your career is stunted simply because you haven't learned the latest language or hot trend.
However, a very important lesson to learn is, good programmers aren't good because of the languages or skills they know. They're good because of their thought process, their communication skills, and their ability to understand functional problems and how to write practical code that actually solves them.
Simply put, good programmers know how to:
- solve problems efficiently
- write code that is sustainable and can be maintained in the future
- work with a team that may be comprised of people with different backgrounds and skill levels
- take direction from management and focus on the right problems
For every one good programmer I interview, I may also interview 10 "experts" that did keep up on the latest tech and learn the latest language, yet they can't really practically apply their skills and/or they're so focused on tech that they have no bandwidth to actually understand the problems we're trying to solve.
My point in writing this answer is to make a slight frame-challenge to your question. Specifically, you asked,
How do I break this stagnation cycle?
But you also wrote a lot about how you've been unable to keep up on the latest tech, and you feel like you can't get jobs because the languages you know are outdated. My response is, while it can be useful to learn new tech and new languages, you cannot make that the sole focus in your professional growth, and in fact you may not even want to make it the number one focus.
Regardless of the programming language you're writing in, you can spend time focusing on and developing the skills I've mentioned above. And, when you do apply to jobs and interview, you can make sure you're emphasizing these skills, versus just focusing on showing off the latest language you've learned. You may not be in a position to go after Android development jobs right now, but given that you know java and C++, you should be able to make plenty of progress in terms of "career growth" by ensuring that you are focusing on these softer skills - both in terms of areas for personal development and growth, and in terms of things you should be showing off when you write a resume or do an interview for a new position.