The most defining parts of remote work (in my experience working remotely) are
You don't work in an office. You're responsible for finding an area (and/or mindset) that allows you to focus and be productive, and shield yourself from distractions. Don't underestimate the difficulty of this. Sitting at your kitchen table is a lot different from sitting at an office desk (for me at least), and requires different techniques to tune out the environment and be productive.
You need to be excellent at communicating with a team who you can't physically talk to. Since you will likely never see the people you're working with in person, you'll need to be proactive at communicating via whatever messaging/calling/collaboration tools your workplace uses.
It sounds like you have experience at the second of those points, but not the first. As such I wouldn't say you have experience as a remote worker, but I think it's definitely worth highlighting in your CV and cover letter that you have experience working with a team in a different location to yourself.
Experience as a remote worker is usually listed as a requirement for remote positions (as you're no doubt aware), and with any job application it's always worthwhile to draw attention to similar experience when you don't have everything they're looking for.
If you're finding that's not enough, then you could investigate whether your company would allow you to work from home. Even one week a month over several months could get you to the point where you can list yourself as having remote working experience, and be able to talk in interviews about the challenges and how you overcame them.