Many job descriptions (especially development jobs) describe the work
as "results-oriented". What does this term mean in this context? Is
there a kind of work not based on results?
Unfortunately, this is yet another one of those terms that means only what the writer says it means.
One company might use this term to mean "We work nights and weekends to achieve our results." Another company might mean "We have lots of measurements in place to ensure you are working toward the results we want." Other companies have different meanings.
When I use that term (which I very seldom do), I mean that I want people on my team to focus on the results - the deliverables, rather than focusing on how we get there. I don't want to have a lot of standards to be followed, a lot of rules around how to do the work, or a lot of paperwork and approvals required - I just want to get the job done.
Work that isn't results-oriented in my shop tends to be the administrivia that large companies require. Filling out a lot of paperwork, attaining the many layers of approvals, strict adherence to stylistic standards, etc - all these might help a large bureaucracy measure, but often do little to produce individual results.