As I understand, his behavior is very intentional, and multi-dimensional. You cannot really fix it by yourself without help from a third party.
I think that you should ask for advice from your manager. Make it simple:
Hello (boss). I need some advice from you. The situation is ... (and you describe what you told us).
He might ask you some questions, and he will extend some advice to you. Just go and do that.
It would be a great idea if you highlight the following:
- you get interrupted in order to keep your colleague informed with the status of your work;
- you get interrupted by the loud talk of the people around you, one of them being your colleague;
- your work is hindered because by your colleague not sharing information with you, on the grounds of "intellectual property".
Bottom line: the problem is NOT your colleague, but the fact that you cannot perform properly at your job. That is the message that must get to your manager.
I should add one day my boss came to me and told my colleague is sometimes awkward and pushy, and I should not keep talking to him since he has other tasks to do.
That is another reason to report to your manager. Also, since your manager supports you, you can approach your colleague in a friendly / respectful manner with:
Hi (colleague). Please do not interrupt me, I am very busy now. Please discuss with (boss) the details of my work, I keep him informed regularly.
Please discuss this detail (whatever) with (boss). I do not have the right to make a decision about it, and I take my work instructions from him (the boss).
You can even go the extra step to thank him for his concern and willingness to help, and you excuse yourself for returning to your work.
Some other comments:
he tells "he does not want the company to collaborate with any university because of the intellectual properties, new applications will be for university"
Just tell him to discuss the problem with the company, since you cannot do anything about it. And then return to whatever you were doing, showing him that from your point of view the conversation ended.
he tried his best to convince my manager...
Not really your problem, the manager becomes more aware of your colleague's behavior.
he stops by my desk and asks what I am up to
Be short: "I'm working." And then return to whatever you were doing, showing him that from your point of view the conversation ended.
He told me "I am not an employee, he could not let me learn this stuff".
Those matters are not for him to decide. Whenever you need to learn something, discuss with your manager. If he disobeys and does not help you, report the new situation. It is your manager's role to organize proper trainings for you, with the proper people.
Since the new guy came, he does not share any new ideas with me anymore
Maybe it is even better, he does not bother you directly anymore.
while asking what I am up to, he tells you should do this, that,.., like a boss.
Just watch him while he talks and say nothing. And then return to whatever you were doing, showing him that from your point of view the conversation ended.
In a way, this is a fight by not fighting.
"To subdue the enemy without fighting is the acme of skill." (Sun Tzu)