My workplace team has meetings between remote participants using a group phone call. Each member dials into a number which allows them to voice chat with all other people who have called in.
The meetings suffer from the same issues that would affect any group meeting, except in addition, (1) there is a one-second lag between when people begin speaking and when they are heard, and (2) it's more difficult to provide social cues.
To expand on my first point: The caller may begin speaking and then a half-second later hear someone interrupt them. The caller may be frustrated at being interrupted, but in fact due to the lag the other caller began speaking first. Other members will hear you second, interrupting. It is sometimes ambiguous whether you are being interrupted.
To expand on my second point: It's hard to know when a person is done speaking. It's hard to make it known that you want to begin speaking, or that you want to interject in the conversation, without interrupting.
These issues primarily arise with 3+ people. It makes it difficult to have quick and effective discussions.
Some coping mechanisms we have developed: Long wait periods between people talking; anticipating when another person will finish talking, and begin talking one-second prior in order to reserve the next speaking position (and awkward results when the prediction fails, or when multiple people do it at once); If I hear someone interrupt me within the first one-second of my beginning to speak, I will immediately state "sorry, please continue." since I will be heard as interrupting them. Although due to the ambiguity, sometimes two people will continue speaking over each other assuming the other will realize they are the interrupter and bow out;
Some other mechanisms we haven't tried, but that might be good to explore for a voice meeting: Giving audible social cues for intention to contribute, interrupt, speak next, or finish speaking. The visual equivalent might be raising your hand. Such audio cues could be briefly stating your intention, or maybe pressing the number pad; using an accompanying text chat like Slack or Teams to organize and facilitate mini-conversations; using a different service without lag.
How can we organize our audio-only group conference calls so that each participant has the capability to contribute and be heard, without participants stumbling over each other or interrupting one another?