Yep. There's a ton of research on this:
Are some of the more useful references I've enjoyed in the past. They cover a broad spectrum of ideas around the differences between cultures.
One factor in the general idea you are describing is the factor of Power Distance - which is defined as:
Power distance refers to the way in which power is distributed and the extent to which the less powerful accept
that power is distributed unequally. Put simply, people in some cultures accept a higher degree of unequally distributed power than do people in other cultures.
unequally distributed power than do people in other cultures.
There's not an obvious vector for "and also the extent to which the people in power try not to use that power because they are uncomfortable" - but I've generally seen it described that cultures with a low power distance index show that all individuals are not so accepting of what you describe as positional power.
And - yes - it is studied and rated - the last link on my list gives a set of countries and their ratings. US is at 40, which is is on the low side (ie, not very accepting of power distance... even though there is a big divergence between the haves and the have-nots on things like wealth). Take - for comparison - countries that also do a lot of tech, with citizens/former citizens working in the US or collaborating with with the US frequently - India=77, China=80, Poland=68, Japan=54 (yeah, not as high as China!).
And it's not necessarily a location thing - one can't necessarily generalize - Poland (68) and Germany (35) are quite close. There's a whole lot of factors that go into the "why" of all this.
And lastly - I'll add that this stuff isn't a universal. Pockets of a nation may have adapted to be quite different - this is usually a measurement of the general population. For example, almost any military is quite authoritarian (for obvious reasons), especially at the front lines. Including the US military, even though we have a low power distance index, we actually train officers and enlisted to give and take orders. And after some disasterous airline flight problems, training programs to indoctrinate different cultural patterns in areas were safety was key have been developed and in some cases piloted, although they are not universal.
One could say, that these are separate cultures within a geographic area. That's probably the most accurate way to put it. As there are other cultures within the US that are vastly different than the majority - think Hasidic Jews, the Amish, or even just some of the big differences between the North and the South, or the MidWest vs. the West Coast. It's usually clearest when you compare cultures that are fairly well segregated from the mainstream, as the segregation itself can influence the divergence of values. Not saying one is one wrong and one is right --- just saying that there is no easy broad brush that covers everyone.