Friction with co-workers is often a "straw that broke the camel's back" situation where each individual friction point is not that big of a deal, but the amount of friction points does become a bigger deal.
Your individual points can all be argued to not be reason enough to socially exclude you, but combining them does create the image of a coworker who is less than pleasant to work with, which is statistically going to lead to social exclusions. I'll provide feedback and an alternate interpretation to your raised points, taking the liberty of differing points of view and interpretations.
I'm sorry if the below reinterpretation of words comes across as blunt at times, but I think you need to see the other side of the coin, because you're currently working with a go-getter attitude with little disregard (or genuine obliviousness) to the effects of your actions.
I am not really a team first kind of player.
This is a red flag statement. It's perfectly fine to be a good solo dev, but it's less desirable to openly present yourself like that. It suggest that you immediately dismiss your team members in favor of yourself, which doesn't help to build trust and cooperation.
I am not one to consult
This again is a matter of phrasing. If you don't need advice or guidance and aren't struggling with your tasks, that's perfectly fine.
However, your stance on others consulting with you is unclear. If you are similarly averted to it, that becomes a strong friction point.
not one to wait for consensus, etc. If I have an idea, I just throw it right up to decision making level.
If you bypass the team, you effectively dismiss your coworkers' possible contributions. What you're doing isn't against the rules but it does bypass some social checks that will hinder your interpersonal relationships.
Think of it this way: when I communicate with my landlord (e.g. about a broken pipe), I am allowed to let this be done through legal channels right from the get go. I'm not doing anything wrong. However, I would be massively changing the tone of communication with the landlord compared to if I talked to them first to see if they were already willing to fix the broken pipe.
Me going to a lawyer without first talking to the landlord is like you talking to management without consulting the team. It completely omits casual conversation and dramatically impacts the tone of the work environment, which puts people on edge and is not going to foster a great interpersonal relationship.
In those 8 months, I am the only person to never miss a sprint goal.
There is an underlying tone of arrogance in your description of your role and your achievements. This statement is a more concrete manifestation.
Why are you even tracking this? Why would it matter? Should others feels bad for having missed a sprint goal? Either you're saying it doesn't matter, and then this statement is irrelevant, or it does matter, and then you've got a really competitive view on how to interact with your coworkers, which is at the heart of them not liking you.
On top of that, you list yourself as a junior developer. Most commonly, you will be getting simpler tasks than medior/senior developers, which can massively skew the odds of you hitting your sprint goals.
To showcase my point: If you put me, Michael Schumacher, Lewis Hamilton and Sebastian Vettel (world class Formula 1 drivers - in case you don't know them) in a room, I am the only one in the room with a 100% winrate on racing. Providing context, I only partook in one race when I was 14, but I did win, so I clearly rank better than Michael and Sebastian, right?
Even if we ignore the statistical juggling that this statement entails, this is again one of those clear "I am better than my coworkers" statements that does nothing but harm your interpersonal relationships with them.
When I say that something will get done, I get it done, even if it means working a few extra hours (up to 10 a week). Others don't work those extra hours, so they often have to report that their tasks are not complete. The project owner very publicly complains about the other developers when this happens.
I can definitely see where the friction is coming from. You are driving up the standard of an employee's workload. Rather than just advancing yourself, it is actively casting your coworkers in a bad light.
I don't know your personal life or that of your coworkers, but taking a statistically accurate stab in the dark: junior developers are young and more often don't yet have a family/children of their own, which makes them much more flexible to perform overtime compared to someone older with more life commitments such as a family and/or children.
Don't get me wrong, I'm not saying that you and your coworkers should conspire to keep the workload artificially low. That would be wrong too.
But trying to race ahead and then having it publically blow back on the others will of course do you no favors in your interactions with them. This isn't your fault - your manager is the one generating the negative feedback towards the others who don't do the overtime, but the social blowback from your coworkers is naturally directed at you instead of the manager.
In particular, I did something that which meant that a company wide email (~800 in the company) was sent out praising me.
By itself, this is not an issue. Deserved praise is deserved, regardless of position.
I am learning to toot my own horn
However, this is an issue. Based on your question, it is clear that you are focused on personal achievement which you express by comparing yourself to the team, which you bypass on every occasion where it benefits you personally. On top of that, you tamper with the workload curve by taking on (presumably unpaid) overtime to achieve your sprint goals, which not everyone has the freedom to do; and are clearly aware that this is generating negative feedback on others from management.
You're currently working with a go-getter attitude with little disregard (or genuine obliviousness) to the effects of your actions.
If that's how you want to approach your career, that's okay. Some people have made great strides using this sort of "dog eat dog" approach to their career. But it's not going to be making you any friends.
You can't both distance yourself from people and then wonder why people are distant from you. It's one or the other.
I am not necessarily competitive, but rather just extremely sensitive to incentives.
What exactly do you think competitiveness is, if not a behavioral response to the incentive of winning?
I don't have a need to be well liked. I don't need infantry level allies. I am just wondering what risks might exist for me going forward.
What happens when you don't have the free time/energy to take on overtime anymore, and a new junior dev is able to do so? Will you be happy now being one of the "lazy" devs who should take the example of the junior?
What happens when you run into a conflict with your employer, possibly over something completely unrelated? Will anyone have your back or vouch for you, after you've hung them out to dry?
What happens when you happen to be assigned tasks that, through no fault of your own, end up not meeting their sprint goal? Will you still argue your "results over effort" opinion when your result isn't perfect either?
None of this is a guarantee. You might always have the time/energy to keep this up, you might never get a task you can't complete, and you might always have a great relationship with management. But the odds are low.
Our individual Velocity score seems to be how we are judged. A team member who spent their sprint unblocking people but not completing their own work would hear about it from the project owner.
The saving grace here is that your work attitude seems to be a product of the environment you find yourself in. Management seems deadset on pitting employees against each other in a misguided "competition breeds results" attitude.
I hope you can see the blatant issue in negatively reviewing someone who spends their time helping their coworkers. Clearly, management's metrics are not accurate measures of contribution.
If you want to play the game and reap the rewards, I can't tell you you shouldn't. However, if you decide to go over dead bodies, which is what you're currently doing, then you're going to reap the consequences from eroding your team's trust and cooperative spirit.