Do canadian working rules allow part-time jobs, when Someone is already working with the government (or with private companies)?
I didn't find anything related to this online. Online posts focus on part-time jobs for students.
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This depends on the company rules. The law is fine with it.
Individual companies have rules on this that can differ, but legally it is completely fine. Lots of Canadians have 2nd jobs or freelance on the side. I work for a local government and they are fine with it as long as it does not generate a conflict of interest.
I completely agree with Matthew Gaiser's answer - there's no general legal prohibition against working two jobs at the same time.
As a Canadian myself, working in the tech sector, I've known many colleagues who had a "side hustle" personal business in addition to working full time with me at whatever company. It's no big secret, and no one cares, as long as there's no obvious conflict of interest and the work is still getting done.
Although a word of caution - if you do decide to pick up a second job be sure to keep the two separate, time-wise. Don't work on anything for Job A while in the office for Job B. In programming circles there's a lot of hubbub about "any code you write while working for us belongs to us," so if you're at Job B writing code for Job A (even if you're on a break), you might find the legal ownership of your code getting tangly.
Likewise, "borrowing" code from one job - even just a little generic function with no sensitive bits - for use at the other would be a bad idea. Even if you wrote the code at the first job. That code belongs to them, not you. Re-write it from scratch for the other job.
This is all from a programming perspective, obviously. This sort of problem may not really apply to other industries, but in general - don't work on job A at job B, and don't "borrow" anything, material or otherwise, from one to use at the other.