TLDR: Suck it up, but, make the most of the hardware. It's good hardware.
"I can't work with your platform" makes you look awful
Here's the problem with that. Companies innovate all the time - everything from code repositories to conferencing platforms gets changed. Can you imagine an employee who says "I won't work with AWS" right in the middle of an AWS rollout? When you hear that, you fully expect that next week, the story will be "I can't use Bugzilla" or "I won't use ZOOM" or "I won't wear a mask or social distance because 4th Amendment".
That frames you as a whiner / complainer, who puts personal prejudices ahead of team play.
This is worse when it's about Mac vs PC/Linux. Because there is a petty and well-known "religious war" in that vein. Regardless of your actual reasons for disliking Mac, those will be mistaken for the pettiness of that aforementioned "religious war", and your reasons will be considered trivial. So this also frames you as a "snowflake" or "diva" who thinks oneself is more special than other employees, and who wants petty concessions from the company, e.g. the apocryphal "M&Ms with the green ones picked out".
It also suggest mental limitations, i.e. inability to learn new things. Which in the technology field, makes you completely un-marketable.
You ought to be able to work with the platforms they tell you to work with.
If that's an irreconcilable problem for you, then we're really dealing with a cultural-fit issue, and that's a completely different problem.
IT picked this for a reason
This was a lot more obvious back in the day. IT would have plopped an actual 3278 terminal on your desk to access the mainframe. If you demanded a VT100 instead, that obviously wouldn't work, and you'd know that, and wouldn't ask.
It's a server farm now instead of a mainframe, but the same basic concept applies: there are very complex platforms maintained by significant teams, and these platforms are "vertical" from the server to the client. That computer isn't a perc... Think of it as a "terminal" into the corporate cloud, and nothing more. That whole stack, everything from VPN to antivirus to web app interoperability, is externally managed by people whose job that is, and they chose hardware that makes their workload manageable.
Here's what they don't want happening: You opening a bug saying "CVS won't let me upload code". -> "WFM, what browser are you using?" -> Midori.
So you have to work with the platforms they tell you to work with.
That said, you should certainly talk with IT about your options. You're probably not the first person to ask. And here's the thing: If IT wanted to support a diversity of platforms, they picked a good choice of hardware!
Maximize the versatility of the Mac hardware
The Mac is designed to triple-boot MacOS, Windows and Linux. Not emulated*. Native, on bare metal. Hold down option on startup, pick your OS. Heck, you can even pick among several versions of each.
* But that too is available.
Further, MacOS itself is a POSIX compliant BSD implementation. It has an Apple implementation of X11 free for the downloading. So, depending on what you are doing, you may not even need to option-boot into a proper Linux.
I switch back and forth between MacOS command line and actual remote Linux, and it's pretty seamless. I honestly can't see what you're fussing about. You may have to unlearn some archaic commands like
sort +2 and learn POSIX versions, but you should be able to handle that.
Even more, Apple has supported booting from external drives since the PowerPC days. So the other OS can be on an external USB 3 keyfob. (Windows might have a problem with this, but that's Windows' problem not the Mac's. No problem with Linux.)
So you already have a very Linux friendly OS natively in MacOS... and if IT permits it, you can simply reboot into Actual Linux or Windows, on external volumes or USB sticks if you prefer.