You are essentially asking three questions here :
What should I do?
My advice is walk away. I have encounted "blind recruitment" on a number of occasions, but not at the graduate entry level. It is usually via a specialist recruitment firm, sometimes actively headhunting, sometimes personally and individually targeted. A blind application via a g-mail address at a gradutae level is unusal.
Was your response okay?
It wasn't great. Telling someone "You should" is usually leads to escalation, as in this case. Its always better to start with "I.." So in this case:
"I prefer to tailor my CV to the role, and if you could provide me with more details I'd be happy to formally submit my application..."
However, the fact that they have escalated and demanded an apology is another worry. Most companies have to cut down applicants by ~90% at the moment to get to an interview shortlist. A situation like this may get you onto the "reject" list, but to get a follow up e-mail asking for an apology for a reasonable - if badly phrased - question is highly unusal.
Is it a good idea to send a CV out with personal information deleted?
Identity theft for immigration purposes is pretty common; I have had three identical CVs for the same post in my organisation with different names, and several others with cut-and-pasted skills. In this situation it could just be one of your fellow graduates aiming to improve their own CV by seeing what the "job seeking opposition" is saying on theirs.
EDIT : Modern printer standards means that many companies will check back with the degree provider that the person in question attended a university. Having "harvested" real names makes this check harder to do. This is not new, just easier now:
The fake degree from Sheffield University meant he was able to gain
entry to a masters program at University of NSW in 1971, which led to
him getting a Masters of Engineering Science in highway engineering in