Well, you're not going to get what you call your "rights." You made a mistake, and you have to take some heat for it. Your coworker may have been flying off the handle, but he was the one that had to clean things up.
Anything you do now to try to "escalate" the issue is going to come across as you trying to evade responsibility for your mistake. Also, I seriously doubt that you are the first person that got that reaction.
The best thing you can do right now is to go walk around the park, calm down, and come back in tomorrow and do your job well. Admit that you made the mistake, and let the mistake be dealt with separately from this person's reaction. Let things cool down for about a week, and then ask that person why he said that.
From a perspective of the culture I am in (Rocky Mountains in U.S.), the guy lost his cool, but didn't insult you directly. Your best bet for retaining the respect of your colleagues (and no, you haven't lost it), is to admit you made the mistake, show how you've learned from it, and ignore the overreaction of your colleague. Austria is a little hard to judge, as it sits right between Eastern and Western European cultures, but it sounds like this person is just a hothead, and you were just today's subject. There was no personal insult intended, and you are unlikely to ever get an apology if he doesn't feel he insulted you.
As for your dignity, that can't be taken from you. You can lose it yourself, though, if you push this issue.
In the end, your coworkers and managers will respect you more for being reliable and responsible (including admitting your mistakes) than they will for forcing an apology from this person.