Quick side note: managers usually check addresses at the start of the FY (which is usually end of January or November timeframe) and one of their task is to verify the HR address data is correct for their employees. I'm 90% certain this is what your manager is trying to do.
Let me first say it's always impolite to ask a question to answer a question. It's sort of like if you asked someone where is the bathroom? And they said, "What do you plan to do in there?" You also indirectly indicated you're going to delay providing the information until they answer your question. Your home address is something you'd know, not something that you'd have to look up. So you're basically saying, "I'm going to hold off giving you my address until you tell me why you need it?"
Emails are very impersonal and easily offensive especially with questions on top of an easily answered question. It's probably best to answer the question first, then ask what they want to do with it.
My thought on what to do: go to your manager and apologize for the misunderstanding. Start the conversation by first sending your address then going to his/her desk and say that you didn't intend for the email to be offensive and just wondered what the address is going to be used for? I would also hesitate to simply drop it for now because you may further anger your boss since he misunderstood your initial email.
In the future, I would write the email as follow:
Mr X, my address is 1234 Main Street, City, State, and Zip. I am wondering what the address update is for?
Then see what he says. You just answered his question and he'll probably answer yours.