That's quite the history!
job 1 - poor performance, sleepy at the job, didn't always listen. Was fired after 2 weeks
"Sleepy" at the job can have medical causes - and I believe you stated in a comment that you had investigated this with a Doctor at the time. Companies may or may not be understanding on that side of things (you'd hope they would be but sadly many aren't), but the potential for understanding and tolerance with this sort of thing goes markedly downhill when it's all they've ever known and it's coupled with bad performance.
job 2 - I was struggling keeping up with training and even when I struggled, I tried to hide it and that bit me back. Lasted one month
If you're receiving training and aren't understanding something not saying anything is just wasting everyone's time, and it doesn't benefit anyone including you. I can't guarantee that a company won't can you for struggling with training, but they sure as sh#t are going to can you if you lie about understanding it and then go on to fail miserably at the job as a result.
job 3 - not skilled enough. I had great motivation and I listened. The company just needed somebody more experienced/skilled. Lasted 3 weeks.
It happens, to be honest if this was the only one you had it's unlikely to have been anything more than a footnote in your career
job 4 - bad communication with the boss and very slow performance. This was no surprise for me since WFH damaged my productivity
Not everyone is suited to WFH, and some people struggle to maintain productivity. But ultimately it's still within your control to do something about it - working from home didn't damage your productivity, you failed to adapt to it. In the absence of the option to work from the office (and the whole pandemic thing has removed that option for many in the last year) you really have two choices sink, or swim. And you chose to sink. It sounds harsh, and perhaps it is, but it's true never the less.
job 5 - not being transparent, bad communication, often late with handling requests. Lasted for 1 month and a half
At this point #5 is just cementing the patterns already established. Slow performance, poor communication, and "not being transparent", which sounds awful lot like a euphemism for trying to hide the poor performance.
Now my problem is that I usually assume somebody would give me a very explicit warning before firing me, like saying "I will fire you if you do this again" but this never ever happened. I do notice I get told when I do something bad but they're usually not said with urgency or seriousness so I end up not taking it very seriously. Like for example somebody would say "try to communicate better next time" would often have me forget this advice. If they had said "if you don't communicate better next time, there will be consequences". Now I've learned this the hard way to take hints seriously.
It's good that you've identified this as a problem, as you've hopefully worked out by now these sorts of explicit warnings are rare, and even rarer with new hires. As a new hire any negative remarks on your performance in the role should be treated as if they included the "there will be consequences" qualifier. If you don't get any negative remarks you should still be asking yourself continuously if there is any way you could be better.
For my next role, how can I just stop getting fired and actually stay there at least a year? I know I've learned but I've become absolutely paranoid and anxious. My mind is telling me I lost my 5 previous jobs so I would logically lose the next one. I try to be optimistic but I always seem to make a little mistake I'm not even aware of which would get me fired.
I apologize if it sounds like I'm beating you over the head here but this is not making a "little mistake" and getting fired, this is a repeated pattern of not doing the job they hired you for well enough. Writing this level of history off as small mistakes or bad luck might make you feel better (briefly) but it's not doing you any favours in the long run. I don't say this to make you feel bad, but to remind you that this is something that is in your power to fix, you have the agency here.
For your next role if you want to break the cycle you need to do something differently than you have before, do that, learn from your experiences and then - logically - you won't lose the next one.
So how to go about that? You made the following suggestion:
I have thought about a solution to this huge problem. I was thinking what if I have daily standups where I ask "what am I doing well and what can I do better?" every single day so that if a person picked up on a problem I had that I could go immediately fix it. I also thought of using weekly evaluation sessions where my performance is evaluated and at the same time I'd be given SMART goals. What do you think?
While I don't disagree that asking the "what can I do better?" question at evaluations - and possibly in additional ad-hoc ways if the timespan between evaluations is large. I'd stress very strongly that this alone is not a "solution", it's only one element of what needs to be a larger change in attitude.
So I'd be very, very wary of leaning too heavily on this - in many jobs you don't get formal evaluations particularly often (for several of my roles it's been annually), and trying to push this frequency up too much puts additional overhead on to your manager and can come over, well, needy.
The performance feedback loop in work environments is very different from the explicit one that exists in education, and there's a much greater emphasis on being able to monitor your own performance and spot areas for improvement. And to do that near-enough on the fly. I've seen many juniors struggle to get to grips with that shift, and it's difficult to teach people to do - it's very much something you learn by doing. You mentioned SMART goals in your question - not every manager is going to set them, but there's nothing to stop you setting some for yourself!
If you're always thinking about how you are doing, how you can improve, and acting on the results of that (whether or not your boss has said anything) you are taking charge of your own future - not just bimbling along until the next metaphorical bus hits you in the face. There can be such a thing has taking this too far - and that can be be unhealthy even counter-productive but I have to say that this:
I usually never see it coming. It always takes me by surprise. I always think I'm doing great, I'm putting in effort, then out of the blue I get invited for a talk, then suddenly being told I'm terminated.
Makes me think you're a long way from taking the level of self-evaluation and examination to those extremes. You're probably going to have to do a level of self-evaluation and self-management that will feel extreme, but only because, frankly, it sounds as though you've been way, way too lax at that so far.
I can't sugar coat this for you, that wouldn't be in your interests, you've dug yourself a pretty deep hole for your career right now. 5 firings in a such a short timespan is going to haunt your resume for a while. You might have to take a less desirable job, something very junior or poorly compensated because, as you've identified you need to get something and keep it for a good chunk of time. But you can recover from this.