It's not uncommon for people to get this idea, "What? You don't know this? I thought everybody knew this."
Furthermore, people who work in a particular field or for a particular company often forget that, while they spend their entire lives working with this product, the rest of the world does not. Things that are routine to them may be very strange to others. Just for example, I remember once talking to someone from a software company about one of his company's products, he sent me a file and told me to install it. So I asked what seemed like a pretty obvious question to me, "How do I install it?" And he took on a tone of voice like I must be a complete idiot to ask such an obvious question and told me to copy the file to such-and-such a directory. I asked if I didn't have to run an installation program or set up some kind of configuration file. No, he said, like one would explain to a 2 year old, just copy the file to this directory. So okay, that's all I had to do and it worked ... but how was I supposed to know that? He worked with this product every day so he knew what directory to copy it to and that that was all he needed to do. I had never heard of the product before so I did not know any of that.
I'd simply tell them, "Look, I like to think I'm a smart guy and I know a lot about software development. But I'm sorry, I don't know much about widget manufacturing (or whatever the domain is). Maybe these terms you're using are very common in the widget industry, but I don't know them. Could you please explain them to me or point me to some source that I can study that would explain them?"
I'm a software developer, too. One thing about this business is that you often jump into some entirely new field. Like my first job was for a company that made kitchen appliances and my second job was for a company involved in maintaining aircraft. When I took the second job they understood that I knew all about computers but I knew nothing about aircraft maintenance, and so they took some time to explain what I needed to know as I went along. Then I moved to the furniture business and had to learn a whole new industry. Etc.
If they can't grasp that there are human beings who weren't born knowing their domain, and that if you don't just know if you must be some kind of drooling idiot, I don't know what you can do. Explain to them that you don't know it and ask for some explanation. If they're not willing to give it, and it's not something you can research or just figure out, yeah, you don't have much of a future in this company.