There is a great question on why you would generally want to gain visibility in the workplace: Why is it important to gain "visibility" in the workplace? But not much in the way of strategies for achieving this.
It seems to me that there are definite do's and don'ts to going about this. For example, I never want to be seen as one of those people that are trying too hard do this, and annoy everyone by publicizing everything they do. I've worked with people like that and I think it did them more harm than good.
However, in my new job I find that my higher-up management is too busy to really know what is going on with me. I now realize that I never had to 'work for visibility' much because my previous employers had good reporting structures in place, and so long as you did well it would eventually bubble up. In this new place we have no 1:1s, and very little and sparse status updates. While I am taking ownership of my tasks, filling this void and getting a lot done, I'm becoming concerned that my immediate superiors are not aware of the amount of work that I am doing.
How do you ensure decision makers are aware of your good work?
NOTE: Distinct from How to gain visibility when overloaded with less important tasks? as that is discussing special case rather than general case.