They gave you valuable feedback: you did not present yourself in a way that led to the outcome you wanted (you did not get the job). It is hard to see why they would actively lie about what they said (this situation is not a political campaign...). So assuming they didn't mix you up with a different candidate, they told you what they thought about the message they received from you. Communication has multiple parts (sender, receiver, transport medium, message and probably other parts like setting, body language etc.). It is on you to work with this if you want to have better results in the future and find out where the communication broke down.
Simply rejecting/blocking this kind of criticism is a useless waste of time for everyone involved. If the criticism was well-founded, then you just reinforce their impression that you're lacking. If the criticism is unfair, then just saying that also will not help in particular.
A good quick, first response to negative feedback is to simply acknowledge it in a neutral fashion ("thanks for your feedback"). Even negative feedback is better than none at all.
If the feedback giver is a person you will meet again (for example, your boss), it also behoves you well to let them know that you take the feedback to heart and will reflect on it ("your feedback has given me some food for thought"). If there is an obvious action for you that would remedy the criticism, it is good to add that as well ("I will do XYZ to improve ABC"). If you think the person expects an reaction from you, it is well to ask: "Can you help me come up with a good way to improve this? Let's meet..."
If you are not sure what they mean, or if you suspect some misunderstanding, you can ask ("Thanks for your feedback. I am note quite sure I understand what you mean by XYZ, would you mind explaining it in more depth?"). This would also be a proper way to respond in your particular question. If in this context a question like this sounds too "childish" for you, because their criticism was formulated completely plain and there is nothing else to explain, then you might slightly imply what you want to say: "Thanks for your feedback. I am unhappy that my statements about topics XYZ did not come across as I intended to. Can you help me to understand this better - do you think what I said was worded badly or completely missed the point?"
Obviously, all my quoted suggestions are just a baseline which you should formulate so they match your speech patterns and you can modify all of them as you like to bring over any subtleties you need to communicate.