So you made a design and it wasn't the optimal solution. Someone else suggested a better solution. Now you feel ashamed.
Good news: You accepted the better solution and worked out the details of how to make it work. This should not be underestimated, I've met too many smart developers unable to do this out of pride or due to some sunken cost fallacy (very common!), ending up costing a lot of time and effort.
Bad news: You say you're feeling ashamed and humiliated.
Now I understand it'd be nice if we always came up with the perfect ideas ourselves. Turns out that's not how it works. I tend to have good ideas and rarely get feedback that causes fundamental changes to my suggested approaches. It still happens, though. That's why I'm keen to have others look at my ideas. Why does it happen rarely? Am I a super genius and know everything? Absolutely not. I have good ideas. But of course, I also have flat out stupid ideas. To tell one from the other, I have experience, I prototype, and I can think through plans. But most importantly, I bounce them off people to help me find the best ones. I don't feel bad about that at all, quite the contrary. I do tend to do this before presenting to a group - but if it were to happen during a presentation, I'd happily take that on board. Just make sure it really works for your case. I'm always happy to find out there's a better solution, because it'll probably be easier to implement, less work to maintain, and I can move on to the next great thing.
"ashamed and humiliated" is also bad, because IMO it feeds into what I briefly hinted at above - the sunken cost fallacy. People that are too proud / ashamed / fearful of abandoning a bad design produce a lot of headache. Don't emotionally overcharge this, try and be rational. You'll find this will help generally.
I suspect this attitude is actually holding you back, and part of the reason you feel you're not coming up with good ideas. If you want to get good ideas, you must be able to get and accept feedback. Give credit where it's due. Iterate. Play with ideas. Keep getting feedback. Maybe best case in a more private setting first. I think if you'd pinged one of the people in the meeting and asked for some feedback more privately, you could've avoided this public "humiliation".
Now of course some degree of feeling "bad" may be a good thing, just as an incentive to learn. But you've gone way past that, and it's not helping.
I don't think you should question everything about yourself. That said, you may(!) find you're not very good at design. That's fine, too. Look for your strengths and use them. While there's something to be said to compensate for your weaknesses, I've found it's best to build on your strengths.
Don't beat yourself up. Just make it a success, give credit for the ideas received. If you make this a success, people will be happy with what you've done. If you insist on using a bad design, people will be unhappy.
Re: "trust scores": It may or may not be that people think you shouldn't be designing things. More likely, you just weren't aware of the better approach. Either way, personally, I would stop trusting you if you chose to stick with the worse approach anyway, or couldn't be trusted to implement the better one well. This may be different in your organization - in which case I'd consider changing the organization.
I know developers that can't design well, but are great at delivering. And the opposite. Some can do both. So long as you know where you are, that's not too relevant. I'm very happy to hand off my design and have someone else refine and implement it well. I'm also happy to get a good design and succeed because of it when I implement it. Both skills are needed, the end result matters.