I'm an international graduate student in the US and my internship has converted to a full-time offer, offering a new grad role as an SRE. I have 3+ years of experience in the field before I enrolled myself in the masters program (worked as an SRE in my home country). Does this fact grant me wiggle room for negotiation? I expect to be offered what engineers having 3+ years of experience in the same field in the US would. Any advice would be greatly appreciated!
Can you try to use it to negotiate a higher salary? Sure.
Will you be successful? Probably not, although it depends on the hiring manager.
As a general rule, experience only matters after you are qualified. This is because the 'experience' you have gained before getting qualified is training, it doesn't really 'count'.
Now - that all said, by all means put it forward in the negotiation. If you have some real-world projects that you can talk about what you did in order to add weight to your request, even better. Likely though, you will get above a new grad with no experience, but not to the level of a 3 year experienced SRE. If you get offered anything in the ballpark of 1-1.5 years experience, I'd probably take it.