Only if you are applying for industries that require heavy pure math theory and its application?
Corporate business programming has very little to do with pure math theory unless that industry is heavily math based like commodities trading, algorithm design in an academic setting much more so, your milage may vary.
What you listed above will just look like a bunch of line noise and get ignored at best or get you immediately tossed out at worst by anyone looking to hire a general software developer and doesn't understand what all those things mean.
Especially an unqualified laundry list of things that don't show any relevance to the job being applied for, just looks like you are padding your resume. It says, if you had relevant things you would have put them there instead.
There is a lot mentioned about standing out, standing out in the wrong way also gets you cut down the quickest! If your resume stands out as having lots of things that I don't care about I can toss it aside the quickest.
What you should focus on is work related Accomplishments specific to the target opportunity
What employers want to see is what you accomplished in the most recent time frame. That time frame is a sliding window of about -3/-5 years.
You say you have 2 years of experience, you should focus on figuring out what out of those two years of real world work experience will make you stand out. Your math achievements made you stand out in University, they will become less relevant as time goes by, even if they stay just as impressive.
- This is definitely something I want employers to ask about, so I can
talk the crazy things that I did, such as spending 2 hours guessing
possible values to solve a question or when I did an induction after
proving for the first 1000 numbers manually.
This is a double edged sword. It might show that you are a dogged problem solver that will eventually get things done through brute force. But it can be interpreted as someone who doesn't know when to give up on a lost cause or seek help out of some kind of misplaced pride.
"The first thing you learn in Law School is never ask a question you
don't already know the answer to."
If you aren't absolutely positively 100% sure how someone will interpret that #5 then you don't want it brought up, you are gambling with an opportunity.
Irrelevant is irrelevant
CV/Resumes should be highly targeted at the position you are applying for. If that position doesn't require a heavy background in math, then don't mention it. It is taking up space for things that would be more relevant.
Anyone reading it will think you don't know what their company is looking for or what their business is about.
Take some sales training, sooner than later.
Every hiring manager is looking for "what can you do for me", if you list a bunch of irrelevant information, no matter how impressive you think it may be, if it is irrelevant, it it shows you don't that their why they should hire you and definitely don't know how to answer it. This is what your CV/Resume should reflect.
No matter what your technical skills, your first job is as a Salesperson. Your most important customer is yourself! You have to become just as competent salesperson as you are at math to succeed in a career.
Unfortunately most technical people are the worst at socially intense activities like promoting yourself to someone, many times who is non-technical, and think that a laundry list of skills should land them the position without any more discussion.