I wouldn't say that this is common, but depending on the company, the level of the position, and the desirability of your particular skill set, you may be able to get some traction. I have negotiated similar bonuses for management positions in the past.
As a hiring manager, I would consider the length of time remaining before your bonus award date to be a factor when determining whether to offer a signing bonus to compensate for loss of annual bonus. If that date is one month away, I would be much more likely to offer a signing bonus than in your case, where it's six months away. A lot of things can happen in half a year.
If I really wanted you on my team, I might instead offer a review after six months instead of at your anniversary date, with the possibility of an "annual" (not pro-rated) bonus at the six-month review. If you are really interested in the position, you may consider taking a similar approach rather than asking for a signing bonus; it involves less risk for the hiring organization by deferring the immediate payout, and it also provides you with a performance incentive for your first few months. It should make no difference to you, as you would get your bonus at around the same time anyway, and this approach has better chances for success in my opinion.