If I identify a constant pattern of my work and ideas not being recognized, others taking full credit for achievements I enabled, and even ignoring me - could it mean that I will never be successful at my current job in terms of career progression and will likely find more luck at a job elsewhere?
From my own experience, my answer to you would be "I doubt it".
I work in a large organization, I do a lot of work in the background. I'm the technical guy not the process guy. So in a project that is say, improving some traffic flow problem I get pulled into help them crunch data and make reports to monitor their output but am rarely mentioned in the presentation to management.
Why? Because I was passive...too passive. It took a while to realize but you're going to have to stand up for yourself and be a bit more assertive.
I really, really wanted my work to speak for me (I still feel that it should have) but I don't think that's how the workplace is most of the time.
Also, I've seen some people take credit for my work innocently. They felt like they designed something having given me all the information. I started bringing people in on the development process, they got to see that it was more complicated than just copy and pasting things from this website. When they got to see the innards of their project and the work I was doing for them I started to get the credit I deserved.
To summarize, if you're passive now. You're likely going to be passive at another job. Occasionally you need to give yourself a bit of self promotion. When you get some momentum and exposure and the kudos you've rightfully earned it gets easier.
Let's assume you are right in your assessment of situation, as you have more information.
It sounds like you are weak in politics and your colleagues are strong in it. You can try to train in politics... or find another job, where politics doesn't matter so much.