Your unfortunate experience is a relevant reminder to me that while experience is important and often enough a prerequisite, it is not an end in itself. Mentioning experience is only a means to an end and means are more or less optional.
Thinking back over my career(s), in my most successful interviews, experience was hardly mentioned by either the interviewers or by me. I sold the interviewers - and in fact, the interviewers wanted to be sold - on ability and potential. I sold them on my ability and potential by impressing them with my ability to think on my feet.
It appears that you tried to use your experience - don't ever, even think of using your experience as a crutch - as a can opener. They were probably not interested in your experience because they either read all about it or they knew all about it from your immediate bosses. What they really wanted to gauge was your ability, potential and possibly, ability to think on your feet, and this is the part of the interview where you fell down on the job.
I suggest that your thank you letter includes some indicator of ability, potential and ability to think on your feet that at the very minimum, will keep them interested in you as a candidate in the near future. I don't think I can tell you more in terms of specifics, as I was not on the scene at the interview and I don't know you. However, you were at the scene and you know yourself. So, follow the Disney's "Lion King"'s advice "Dig deep!" within yourself, and go for it :) Next time you interview, give it everything you've got and go for it, win or lose :)