Having been on both sides of doing evals, I think you are putting more weight into your discussion than it deserves. While I have never worked anywhere foolish enough to expect me to tell them how much of a raise I want (Duh, what is the highest number in the range?), I can tell you that raises are something that are generally carefully negotiated over a period of time by managers as they have a set budget for raises and allocating them involves much poltical maneuvering.
It is possible that, in your company, your manager was given a bucket of money that he can allocate, in which case, he probably still went into the meeting knowing roughly what he intended to give everyone. Or at least he did if he is all all competent.
If I think you are a 10 employee and deserve the 6% (highest amount of a raise I can give) then likely I won't change my mind due to one flub in the discussion. If I think you are a 4 out of 10 employee and deserve no raise or a very tiny raise, the flub just confirms my opinion.
Where there might be room to change is if you are in the 6-8 range where this might mark you down a notch and allow him to reward someone else a bit more than he had budgeted orginally. Of course this is only if he has someone else he thinks deserves more than he could afford to give them and would depend on exactly how appalled he was by what you said. After all it is not uncommon to have performance discussion where the person says something silly. It is also not uncommon to have these discussion where the person thinks he is doing wildly better than the manager does. So managers tend to give little creedence to the content of these discussions in doing the appraisals. By the time it gets to the discussion, it is usually too late to change his opinion of your performance.
And most managers, being human, are difficult to convince to change once they have decided anyway. After all if I take 1% from you, then who do I give it to? Is it fair to Bob if I give it to Harry when they both get the same rating? I am certainly not telling senior management that my staff isn't worth the amount they had budgeted. All this seems too much trouble and especially if I have already turned in the paperwork to HR (or at least prepared it), so forget about it.
For such a minor thing, I would find it unlikely that his decision will be terribly affected. What could affect you more, I think, would be if he caught you in a bad lie or if you showed a bad attitude throughout the discussion. This is not to say you will get the raise at the level you asked for. From other questions this appears to be one of your first jobs and and many people who are new to the workplace have an unrealistic idea of what consititutes a normal annual raise and what constitutes outstanding performance.
What you may have done however is give him a bad impression that might affect your future. He may be watching you more closely now to see if you are the jerk you came across as being. Throwing people under the bus is generally frowned on except by the really nasty political players. If your boss doesn't generally disparage others to make himself look good, then he is probably not happy to think you are. You want to correct that impression as time goes on so that your next evaluation isn't skewed lower.
First step is to find something praiseworthy about the person you threw under the bus and make sure to bring it up to your boss and preferably in public. Next step is to make sure you are seen to be a team player over the next few months. I would be careful about criticising in the next couple of months. This is a minor issue as workplace mistakes go. It should not take long to prove you really are a team player (assuming you are!) and reverse poor impression.
You may have to pay more attention than you have in the past to how people see you. Your performance is being measured at all times not just during an evaluation. Make sure what you do comes to the attention of your boss throughout the year and he will do a better job of rewarding you than if you tell him a bunch of things he didn't know at your evaluation discussion. Nothing you bring up at the discussion should be a surprise to him. If it is, he is going to be more likely to think you are not telling the truth even if you are.