Do you have a university or research institution near you?
I think you may be romanticizing the reality of research just a bit especially if you have no experience with professional research situations. In the fields I have experience with, admittedly exclusively in the academic realm of the 'hard sciences', there's not a lot of 'getting a topic and some resources'. There's a lot of literature reviews, true, and, depending on the field, a lot of data collection, data janitorial work, some analysis and, of course, the super fun world of publishing/reporting. My point is, from your current description, it may be a bit early to say that you love research. But, hey, I didn't know I liked broccoli until I tried it and you won't really know if you like research(or what part of research you might enjoy) until you try it.
The problem comes from "I think I like research, I have a BS in environmental sciences. I want to do more science!" isn't very clear. Do you want to do research in environmental science? Do you want to do research in biology? I mean there are a boatload of fields out there in which you could do research. No one can say do ~this~ without knowing more information about the field in which you are most interested. I am admittedly not an environmental scientist but I have a lot of friends who are involved in research in that field. A lot of people with environmental science type degrees want to go into research and it can be hard to break into without connections. The ones I know who are most successful(purely anecdotally of course) are the ones who have a graduate degree in biology, computer science, or mathematics. That's not to say there's anything wrong or worse about environmental science degrees, it's just that it's a very competitive field to be involved in research in and sometimes different degrees help you stand out. That being said enrolling in a graduate degree isn't the first thing you should do(it may not even be necessary at all).
Here is my recommended multi-step plan.
- Find out what you want to research in. It can be as vague as "maybe I want to research biology" or as specific as "I want to study the blue footed booby's mating dance rituals".
- Do a bit of pre-research research. Figure out if other people are working in that field or on something similar to what you are interested in. Go to google scholar, read a couple of scientific papers. Figure out, in a rough high level way, what that sort of research involves.
- Once you've narrowed down a field/interest and identified some people who are working in it... figure out how they got to where they are today. Do they all have PhDs in advanced booby watching techniques? Did they work in a specific field prior? Did a lot of them go to a specific school? Why bother with this? Because this gives you a rough 'roadmap' of how to get where you want to be.
- Start looking at that roadmap you developed. You know what you want to research, you know how some other people have gotten started researching that thing... what was the first step for them? Is it a graduate degree? Start making plans.
- This is number 5 but it's really something that should happen in parallel with the previous steps. Look at local universities and see if they have research happening in a field that's related to or close to your interest. See if you can volunteer in some research that interests you. Google for professors and organizations. Start going to scientific talks or meetups. Read some of those researcher's papers and start a professional correspondence.
- Follow your roadmap, keep on keeping on. Just ~do~.
You might have to repeat a couple of steps here. If the first topic you think sounds interesting("Hmm, I think I'll research the mating dance of the blue footed booby") but ends up not being compelling to you("All the research involves cataloging and tasting their poop. Nope.") then try looking at another field.
No one here can really tell you, yet, what exactly to do to get where you want to be. The TL;DR I can give you is to get involved. Figure out what field you are interested in and find out about organizations, meetups, current work in the field. Start volunteering or get an entry level position in a lab(many labs will hire folks with 'just' a BS) and get some experience.
Really, in the end, becoming a researcher at a professional level isn't much different than getting any other job at a professional level. You find a job in the field that you are qualified for and you start working your way up.