My job requires 9 hours of work each day. I prefer to arrive by 9.30 and leave at 18.30. My team leader arrives at 11.30 and leaves at 20.30. At the end of his day, he gives a daily update on the day's work. Whenever there are problems, he forces me to stay with him for this briefing. How to avoid waiting until 20.30 and leave at my usual time?
What does it say in your contract about hours? If he is forcing you to do unpaid overtime then it needs to have a contractual basis, and not just be because he likes to sleep until the middle of the day before work.
Leaders lead by the good graces of those who they lead... if he is failing its your responsibility to pull him up on it. Authority flows both ways, its just not usually necessary to do anything with it if your seniors are competent.
Start slowly by telling him simply that you aren't staying late and you have done enough unpaid overtime, and that you are going to start calling him on it if he keeps taking credit for your work.
If he does take credit again, call him on it plainly and immediately. The longer you leave that the bigger the problem. Taking credit for other people's work is thoroughly despicable.
Sounds like your boss is terrible at his job. You should ask his boss for advice on this as well if some polite initial efforts are not successful. Personally I'd want to know this sort of thing asap so I can investigate myself, and maybe turn it into formal warnings so that I can remove a bad employee as quickly as possible. You need to make some effort though, e.g. record the times you spent late and the instances of taking credit.
You could try being assertive. Pack up your bags when it is time to go, and on your way out the door, say, "My shift is up, but if you leave me notes, I will focus on these problems in the morning" OR "I'm off, but I am available for a briefing as soon as you get in tomorrow." If you are questioned, say that a shift from 11:30 to 20:30 just doesn't work for you, but you are happy to follow up on any notes or to meet during the time you are both together in the office. State what you are willing to do and how you are willing to help.
Ultimately, if he is your boss, the company may stand behind him in his unusual schedule, and you will have to decide to comply or move on. It kind of depends on the company culture there.