Your first step is to breathe. Your current panic comes through your question and I can only image how frantic you come across in your conversations with your actual boss, which won't serve you well.
You have a couple of issues and your first step should be to identify them. Once they have been identified you should start separating them into things you can effect and things you cannot effect. Let's clarify the issues you have described and go through recommendations for each:
"I have made my own mistakes on my code as well." The long and short response to this is to stop making mistakes. But, since we are none of us perfect,
a better answer is to examine the types of mistakes you are making. How are you writing code? Are you writing tests for your code? How can you validate that your code does what you claim it does? Is there a review process? Consider, instead of offering excuses, providing some recommendations to your boss on ways to ensure your(and your team's) code is good - code reviews, work flows, unittests. These are all powerful tools to mitigate the inevitable mistakes that occur. Additionally you should take time to identify the mistakes you are making. Take some time to figure out where those mistakes are coming from and what you can do to minimize them - are you rushing? Are you being lazy? Are you lacking in some background knowledge?
"I have trouble getting work done from other teams" This can be subdivided even further.
Other teams are missing their deadlines which effects mine
How are deadlines being set? If they are using email, forums and Jiira there should be a record of promised timelines and deliverables. In theory there would be a project manager on top of this but, for the moment at least, you need to be that person. When they miss their deadline you need to tell your boss immediately that your timeline will be effected. What is happening right now is that they are causing delays and you are eating the shit for it. Keep records, force them to set a timeline in writing somewhere. Don't wait until you've missed your deadline to tell your supervisor(s). Keep your team(from the bottom to the top) in the loop about when you are able to start coding on something and when the projected delivery date is. Are you having regular stand-ups with someone from the team you are receiving code from? If not instigate them immediately, you need to take ownership of communication between the teams you are working with.
Other teams are submitting nonfunctioning or buggy code
What is the process for testing their code? What is the process for measuring the specs against the deliverable? This sounds less like they are delivering buggy code and more like you are eating shit for them delivering non-spec code. Are you immediately telling your manager whenever code is delivered? Do you immediately raise any bugs to both your manager and the other team? You cannot sit on problems and expect good results. So far a lot of your intra-team issues are related to lack of communication and process - start building those things and you'll see a quick turnaround with the problems.
"I have to convince him by talking ?" There is almost nothing you could say at this point to convince your boss that you are not the problem. In an ideal world there would be someone on top of the intra-team communication and project management. Since that does not appear to be the case you need to step up and handle that. It is fair, at this point, to note that you have worked in the company for only 3 months. You should have a mentor or direct-report manager who you can go to with these problems. There should have been an on-boarding process. The lack of these things means that this is a pretty brutal environment to get up and running within. That being said - you can't say anything to convince your boss, but what you can do is come to him with some action items. Recommend processes by which you intent to minimize your mistakes, request guidance on how to report changing deadlines before they become a problem, chat about how to best report bugs in code from upstream.
In order to succeed at your new company you need to take a deep breath, stop failing about and begin to implement and support procedures that will stop the problems from flowing from upstream and landing in your lap. It may be, ultimately, that this company is a poor fit for you, there's no shame in that. But in this, or any other job, you need to be willing and capable of taking control. It sounds like things can't get much worse where you are right now so this may be an excellent opportunity to attempt this.