You can never expect that all others will share your personal preferences and you cannot change your boss's personality and working style. All that is within your control is your reaction to it.
However your working habits appear to me to be somewhat unrealistic in the business world and you need to work on them.
Context switching is often a normal and necessary part of being a senior person particularly for a tech lead or higher, you should plan to get better at it if you want to grow beyond your current junior role. Just today for instance I have worked on a new dev project and an urgent support project, done a training session, done code reviews for 4 other projects, provided technical advice for yet another project and handled well over 100 emails and was in a meeting to plan how to cover someone who is on vacation next week. And I still have to plan for the training session I am giving Monday morning. And it was a relatively quiet day.
Next you sound as if you value the perfect over the good enough and that too can be career limiting. Yes in business there is often not the time to make things perfect. In most places delivery is valued ahead of quality. The company often doesn't get paid unless it can deliver the product. You need to accept this now and stop fighting it or you will tend to be very unhappy in most places.
This doesn't mean that you have to deliver garbage work but you need to understand that the last 20% of delivering a perfect product can take 80% of the time (see Pareto Principle) and no business can afford that. Emphasizing quality is nice, but you have to deliver in a timely manner most places. Learn to pick which corners to cut and what is really critically important. If you learn to use your judgement on what is most critical, you can spend your time on that and still deliver reasonably high quality in a timely manner. Get the most critical 85-90% and you will still be ahead of the game most places.
But one really critical problem is that you seem to assume that anybody who works differently than you is wrong. No they are just different. Some of the style differences are just the difference in how personality types operate and some are differences based on the duties the other person has. So if you release that annoyance and just tell yourself that his way works for him, that will defuse some of your annoyance.
Another thing you need to do is have a talk with your boss about your own work style and what you need to do to be successful in that organization. He may be happy with what you are doing as juniors are not generally expected to context switch much. He may find your style a frustrating as you find his.
What is important about this is that he is the boss, his opinion of you will dictate whether you pass the probationary period, what salary increases you have and what promotion opportunities you will have at that place. It is critical to understand what he expects and to change your style to fit his expectations. Making your boss happy is the number 1 task you have in all jobs.
One of my first bosses was someone whose management style drove me crazy. He was a control freak who insisted that only he knew how to do every single task down to the most minor and that you had to follow his directions exactly. He checked up on me at least every hour and pitched a screaming fit if I deviated from his directions in any way. But I adjusted to that while I looked for someone more congenial to work with (I stayed in the same organization but eventually worked for another boss) and because he actually was an expert in our field, I learned a tremendous amount from him. You will often find in life you learn the most form the people whose style is the most different from yours. I not only learned my profession from him (and manpower analysis is probably even more complicated than programming) but I learned what I did not want to do to junior people when I was a team lead.
If you find you can't do that, then you need to consider if this is the right boss for you. If you decide he is not, then you should still stay here while you look for another job, then in the interviews be more diligent in determining, as much as possible, what the organization culture is. You can easily move to a worse job than this, so you need to be asking about organizational culture and the boss's work style and looking for clues in the interactions that happen around you as you walk through the office. You want to find a place that is more conducive to your style not even worse.