I have worked in environments like this before. The key to surviving and thriving is the ability to be self directed. I ended up not having my contract renewed at the last heads-down shop where I worked. When I asked them for feedback they told me that I "asked too many questions" and I didn't work on things on my own.
I countered with "I did everything you asked me to do" and they said I didn't select bugs from their Bugzilla banks to work on myself. That was the standard way that they got their assignments.
That floored me. I said "but you never told me I was supposed to do that" and they said "it should have been obvious (to any intelligent human being)".
In retrospect it was obviously not a good match for me, and they needed to have a better understanding of how to communicate. At most of the jobs I've done, you would never just assign yourself work, especially in an environment that billed itself as "Agile". I got my assignments from PMs or the team lead. (BTW, they, like your company, had no interaction except the daily fifteen minute standup.) It never even occurred to me that I was not doing something that they were expecting me to do or that the team lead was annoyed at having to tell me what I was supposed to be doing. In some ways, my bad. But more their bad, IMO.
Key for you will be to get them to be upfront with their expectations. Tell your supervisor that you really want to be a key producer. Ask who some of the department superstars are, and find out what makes them "stars" in his eyes. That will tell you what you need to do in order to get his approval and a good performance rating.
Often, in a heads-down not-particularly-communicative environment, people are not used to even thinking about things like that. They know what they like but they don't know how to articulate their values nor how to direct others to fit in with the organization's expectations.
Different organizations, like different machines, have different interfaces that you need to plug in to. If you plug into a port that worked for the old machine, you may find yourself wondering why nothing is working.
Don't rely on them to tell you if you are doing what you need to be. You will need to be proactive and honest. Ask "what can I do to improve"?
And one last thing. You say that you have worked in a team up til now, and it sounds as if this is your first experience with heads-down. You will need to decide if this is the right environment for you. Personally, I hate heads-down. It makes me feel isolated and uncertain. I'm a team player and I enjoy being part of a team and I need feedback on my performance.
There are others who love the independence and lack of distraction. Neither way is better...you just need to decide what is a better fit for you. Give it a chance and give it your best effort, but if you decide that it just isn't the job environment you are comfortable in, look for something else. It will be the best decision for both you and them.