It is unfortunate that your original boss made a promise that the company cannot legally keep. Women are employed at almost all employers. If you want to remain in the US, you need to accept that your career prospects are severely reduced of you cannot work with women. If the office goes from having no women to having women, then you will need to move on. Since working women is the cultural expectation in this country, the onus of changing if a company is no longer all male is entirely on you.
Just as a Christian Scientist cannot work in a hospital and refuse to give treatment because he personally does not believe in medicine, you cannot dictate to companies that they cannot employ women. Women have the right to work in this country. I have worked with many Muslims through the years, so not everyone even within your own faith (I am guessing here based on your screen name and described beliefs) has the same beliefs that you hold. By holding beliefs that don't fit the mainstream, you need to be aware that you are the one who has to either change or accept that your own prospects will be more limited and require more frequent job changes.
There are people that I personally feel uncomfortable working with; I had a co-worker who was part of the Quiverful group of Christian fundamentalists. And certainly with his beliefs, he probably was not wild about working with a liberal feminist either since they believe women should work for the family inside the home. Yet in the office, we were perfectly able to treat each other with the professional respect that each has worked hard to earn. We will never be friends and we will never completely understand the other person's viewpoint, but no religious belief or lack thereof gives you the right to prevent other people from being able to earn a living. I am single, never married and my parents are dead. Am I supposed to starve because I am a female with no male relative to care for her? He has six children and a dependent wife. Are they supposed to starve because other people don't approve of their choices?
I bring this up because you need to learn to separate your personal feelings from your ability to work professionally with anyone or you will find it difficult to remain employed in this country. I can respect that you do not agree with my choices. I can respect that you are raised in a different faith tradition than I was.
However, if you choose not to do your job because of that, there will be consequences. Those consequences could include losing your job and your visa. If your religious belief is strong enough then I respect you for sticking to it and facing the consequences. If you truly feel that I and people like me are evil and choose not to associate with us, that is fine, but that will severely limit you to very few places to work in this country. If that is a problem, then perhaps, you are better suited to move back to your original country. Or you might seek out a group of people from your homeland who run a religious organization to work for (discrimination laws can be gotten around for religious organizations).
I wish you well, this is a tough place to be and you probably feel a bit betrayed because false promises were made to you. You should at least have a private conversation with your boss about what was told to you and why this is problem and find out if there are any accommodations such as working on separate projects that can be made.
I also suggest you talk with others from your country about this issue and how they handle it in the workplace. You will not be able to stay in an all male environment forever in the US.