I agree with the comment thread that there is likely to be no one true answer here. I can tell you what I've seen as a hiring manager, but I'm just one point of information...
But in the spirit of attempting to be helpful:
Do all resumes depending on the type of job you are going for (Professional), look the same in general formatting?
I don't see a single consistent format - but all of them include education, skills, experience (usually in a time order), and often there is an intro/summary/objective in the front. And of course contact info on top.
Many large companies or even smaller companies that use a commercial tool for resume streamlining will also ask that you paste the resume information into their tool when you apply - so be prepared with a resume version that has little to no formatting. This is a case of the lowest common denominator - very few of the resume submission sites I've seen have as many nice GUI bells and whistles as (say) the SE answer textbox. :)
Be prepared to have your own layout, as well, that highlights you as best you can - be ready to provide a resume configured YOUR way if at all possible. Better to make your own choices in how you present yourself vs. letting others pick it for you.
So in English does a resume always have Skills, then Education, than Experience? OR does it depend on the company you are attempting to make your employer?
I'd say that for almost all cases in English, you generally want to write in such a way that the very verbose part of any paper (a resume included) is towards the end with a lot of labeling and white space. Which means that for the most part, the experience list goes last as this tends to be the lengthy section. Skills first vs. Education is as far as I can tell a matter of personal preference.
For the most part, if people put special interest or interesting personal facts in, it goes at the very end.
Contact info is always first.
Are there sections of the resume that are more important than others?
The ones highlighted in the job you are applying for. Other than that - readability is the crucial element and highlighting your strengths.
In a professional resume do you still need to use the Objective, or is that now obsolete?
It varies. I see "summary" sometimes instead of objectives, and I've noticed career sites trending toward the idea of "Personal branding" - in other words instead of saying "I want X, Y, Z", you use a summary to describe who you are and how your particular ambitions & talents combined might serve the organization. If you do this, be prepared to update for each job.
Is it still true to keep the formatting down to one page or is it acceptable in this day and age to fill multiple pages?
1 page is still a good guideline. I've seen longer and not turned them down. Be aware, even with 10+ years of experience, the more you make a hiring manager, the more content you better be providing. If you make me (the hiring manager) read a 3 page tome, you better walk on water, because I don't have a lot of time for this and resume writing is terse.
If you own a blog, twitter, website, Linkedin, or even a StackExchange account should you put that information on your resume?
Go for it. They take so little real estate, I have a hard time not seeing them as a win-- unless the content you provide there is shoddy. No one I know of will turn you down because you provided this (unless your content is embarassingly bad), and it may do some good.
Similiarly, skip it if you use the site primarily for social/family stuff - it's just not interesting, don't distract the reader from the meat of who you are as a professional.
If you own a website, is it better to use a Google/AOL/Yahoo, etc. account or your personal website account when attempting to obtain a job from a company?
Doesn't matter. Be aware that the less typing a reader has to do, the better. And resumes are one of the few contexts where they may still be printed more often than they are read online.
Streamline your links, though. Don't give a reader 12 different links to chase down. If you have a website and a collection of worthwhile social media profiles, collect them all on the home page of your site or pick 1 or 2 of the best. There is little to no chance that a reader of a resume has time to click through 10+ links.
When sending a resume as an attachment, do you send it as an .RTF, .DOCX, or .DOC?
Widely variable by industry and company. In most cases, you'll be posting it to a website, and the key is what the website allows.