I am from Paraguay but work in the US and need to get my passport renewed as I plan on traveling for work sparingly over the next few months. Unfortunately the consulate where I need to get it renewed is a 6 hour train/car ride away. The consulate is only open M-F during regular business hours. Since I will need the passport for work (although I understand it is a personal document) and will have to miss work to get it renewed, is my employer responsible for paying me for the trip to get it? Or do I need to do this on my own time and take off work for the day to get it done?
You will need to ask your manager about this. There is no one correct answer, it's up to the company.
Other possibilities are to look at renewing online or sending someone to get the paperwork for you. I renewed my passport last year online (not Paraguay) but I know in my case it's not necessary for me physically to present the papers, I can send someone with them.
The only official document the company should cover for you is your visa, and that if it's sponsored. If not, the whole process, expenses and time of scheduling an interview, paying for your documents, and actually going to the consulate is up to you. However, the company should allow you to take your leave while you fix your paperwork. My sister is given a full week each year for her visa renewal.
I'm very familiar with these topics cause I'm international too, not working in the U.S. but I had to learn this sort of material by heart for when the feared "So, are you a citizen?" question popped during interviews.