How do I make it clear when applying for a job that I'm willing and
able to relocate
I'd argue that you don't. Every word in a tightly-wrapped cover letter and resume is precious space that you could be using to impress the recruiter. I'm pretty confident that if you live in A and are applying for a job in B, the potential employer assumes that you realize that you're not applying for a local job. It's 2016 and we're well into the Age of the Internet; employers aren't expecting that you found out about this position in your local newspaper.
Your willingness to relocate is a given if you're applying for a job that's not local. It's almost like writing on your resume,
"Will work for money."
Isn't that the point of applying for a job to begin with?
So the employer assumes that you're willing to relocate for the job that you're applying for, so that leaves us with,
relocate at very short notice?
In my experience, interested companies will usually say in the first email or phone call something like,
"As you may know, this job is located in Vermont. If offered a position, how soon would you be able to relocate?"
The first thing to note is their assumption of your willingness to relocate (which ties into the first part of this answer). The second thing to pay attention to is the fact that if they're interested, they'll ask. Now you have the opportunity to express how quickly you can relocate. If they don't ask you here, they will ask you eventually but even if you could move across the galaxy in two days, that's not going to be the deciding factor on a job offer. This is why I'm suggesting that you don't waste your CV or resume space on this. Good luck!
NOTE: If you were unwilling to relocate or couldn't relocate within a reasonable amount of time, then that's probably something you'd want to mention on a CV. It'll knock your odds of employment down but it'll filter out the companies that are not looking to hire someone in such a position, thus saving them and you time in the process. There's no point in getting to the interview stage, or any stage for that matter, just to find out that the company and you are incompatible.