So I was a co-op for a company that I was working for more than a year and they offered me a full time job. Now I am leaving only after 2 weeks (I know this is not very good thing). There is someone I would like to refer as a replacement. I know this person from college and I think he would be a good fit. Now I am not entirely sold to the idea of referring someone versus him directly forwarding his resume. I think it might have a negative impression on him if I do refer him. I say this because everyone was pretty upset with me leaving( Which they should be :().
This one is a tough call here, on the one hand it could make the transition smoother since they have someone coming in to replace you. On the other hand, as you have mentioned they can reject your friend outright since they are associated with you. See if you can test the waters first and float the idea of giving them a list of prospective replacements, at this point don't mention who it will be, just that they will have a list. See their reaction to it, if their fine with the list just refer your friend and tell them you feel they are the most qualified.
I am currently leaving my job. I have a short period of notice and I've put my employer in a uncomfortable spot. When I did this, he quickly asked me if I had a reference for him. Refering someone for an interview, especially if it's a good fit, is something generally apreciated by employers and ease the tensions.
It is possible your employer is so angry that he may react irrationally (you have to figure this out) but most likely he will end up respecting your decision and accept that you help him to find a replacement.